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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-22
Investigation of Oxyuris (Enterobios vermicularis) prevalence in kindergarten and primary school children of Babol city, Mazandaran, Iran 2009


1 Department of Medical Parasitology, Babol Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
2 Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran

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Date of Web Publication18-Jul-2013
 

   Abstract 

Background: Pinworm or Oxyuris (Order: Nematoda) is the most common nematode parasite in humans. One of the most frequent parasitic diseases in kindergartens, school-going children, and in places where many people live together is Oxyuriasis or Enterobiosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Oxyuris contamination among kindergarten and primary school students of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran.
Materials and Methods: During this study, which was done on 702 students, first in an explaining meeting with students' parents, they got to know this disease and its importance in public health. Then correct method of sampling was taught to them, a scotch test tape with two slides and questionnaire requesting personal information, including age, gender, and location of residence were given to them. Results: This study was done on 702 students of Babol kindergarten and primary schools. Among them 352 (50.1%) were boys and 350 (49.9%) were girls. All of the studied children were in the age group of 4-7 years. According to location of residence, 313 (44.6%) were in urban areas and 389 (55.6%) were in rural areas. From total 702 investigated children, 234 (33.33%) were positive and were infected by pinworm, including 101 (43.16%) boys and 133 (56.84%) girls. Discussion: The distribution of these infections depends on principles and standards of hygiene in society, economic conditions of the society, and climatic conditions of the area. Conclusion: Considering the data obtained from this study, because oxyuriasis infection rate in kindergartens and primary school children of Babol was high, it is suggested that oxyuriasis be described in parent-teacher meetings to increase knowledge of the involved families.

Keywords: Enterobiosis , Iran, kindergarten, nematode, pinworm, primary schools

How to cite this article:
Nourozian MB, Youssefi MR. Investigation of Oxyuris (Enterobios vermicularis) prevalence in kindergarten and primary school children of Babol city, Mazandaran, Iran 2009. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2013;6:20-2

How to cite this URL:
Nourozian MB, Youssefi MR. Investigation of Oxyuris (Enterobios vermicularis) prevalence in kindergarten and primary school children of Babol city, Mazandaran, Iran 2009. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Dec 6];6:20-2. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2013/6/1/20/115171

   Introduction Top


Parasitic diseases till now, have been accounted as one of the diseases caused due to unhygienic conditions in many countries around the world. Pinworm or Oxyuris (Order: Nematoda) is the most common nematode parasite in human beings. Regarding climatic conditions, this parasite can live in all conditions but in cold and moderate regions because of favorable temperature is common, especially in crowded families. One of the most frequent parasitic diseases in kindergartens, school-going children, and in places where many people live together is Oxyuriasis or Enterobiosis.[1]

Oxyuris has worldwide distribution and in Iran, the prevalence of it was reported as 25-29%. Signs of Oxyuris contamination include stomachache, headache, itching, paleness, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps accompanied with anorexia in children. Also, in some children complications such as agitation, madness, and nervousness can be seen. Oxyuriasis is not dangerous but can produce perinea itchiness during night time. This is when the pregnant female of the Oxyuris lays its eggs, which contain larvae that die soon after. It is infrequent that the Enterobius vermicularis emigrates to the vagina, producing vulvo-vaginal itchiness or toward the urethra, causing a urine infection. Secondarily, vulvo-vaginitis can be produced by scratching the genital region. [2]

Diagnostic methods of Oxyuris includes using Graham method (Scratch test), observation of eggs in samples taken from beneath of nails and finding adult worms in feces of patients. [3] The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Oxyuris contamination among kindergarten and primary school students of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran.


   Material and Methods Top


This study was done as a cross-sectional study in 2009, on 30 schools, including 10 kindergarten and 20 primary schools (10 schools for girls and 10 schools for boys) located in rural and urban regions of Babol.

During this study which was done on 702 students, first in an explaining meeting with students' parents, they got to know this disease and its significance in public health. Then correct method of sampling was taught to them, a scotch test tape with two slides and a questionnaire requesting personal information, including age, gender, and location of residence, were given to them. They were asked to take samples from their children, in the morning before defecation. The samples were transferred to the parasitology laboratory of Babol Medical University and were observed by light microscope with magnification of 10× and 40×. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test.


   Results Top


This study was done on 702 students of Babol kindergarten and primary schools. Among them 352 (50.1%) were boys and 350 (49.9%) were girls. All of the studied children were in the age group of 4-7 years. According to the location of residence, 313 (44.6%) were in urban areas and 389 (55.6%) were in rural areas. From the total 702 investigated children, 234 (33.33%) were positive and were infected by pinworm, including 101 (43.16%) boys and 133 (56.84%) girls [Table 1].
Table 1: Prevalence of oxyuriasis in kindergarten and primary school children of Babol city, 2009

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Based on gender, no statistically significant difference was seen (P > 0.05). According to dwelling location, 80 (34.18%) of the contaminated children were in the city, whereas 154 of them (65.82%) were in rural areas, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05).


   Discussion Top


Parasitic infections are seen in different parts of the world in various ratios. The distribution of these infections depends on the principles and standards of hygiene in the society, economic conditions of the society, and climatic conditions of the area. Then, investigation and determination of parasites of every region and their prevalence in that region are essential for controlling them. Oxyuriasis is one of the most significant parasitic diseases of childhood. [1]

In previous years, in Iran, several studies were done related to this disease. Abedi et al. (2002) reported that from 133 specimens which were taken from kindergarten schools of Isfahan, only 2.38% were positive, which is the lowest infection rate described in Iran. [3] In another study done by Daryani et al. (2003), in Ardebil city, pinworm infection rate of 18.3% was reported. [2] Also, a study done in 1995 in Urmia, Iran, by Valizadeh et al., reported an infection rate of 37.64% for oxyuriasis, which was the same as the present study but a little more. [4] In Kashan in 1999, Talari et al during a study on kindergartens of this city reported that the rate of oxyuriasis was 19.5%. [5]

Several studies were done on pinworm infection in Iran, such as Maraghi et al in 1999 in Ahwaz reported that infection rate was 34.6% in Iran. [6] In Zahedan, Sharifi et al reported pinworm infection rate of 31.8% [7] and Maghrebi et al reported a rate of 40% in Tehran. [8] These findings are similar to the present study.

In other countries, including South Korea and Argentina, pinworm infection rates of 25%. [9] and 43.4% [10] were reported, respectively.

In the present study, oxyuriasis was observed in girls more than in boys (P < 0.05). This is in line with Talari et al.'s study results, [5] whereas Lee et al[9] reported that pinworms were more in boys. Pinworm prevalence was more in individuals settled in rural areas may be due to lower hygiene level and more crowded families, which are favorable conditions for incidence of this parasite.

Ismaeli et al reported that pinworm infection rate in rural children was more than that in urban children, in Golestan province. [11] These findings, in line with the present study, reported that the rate of infection in kindergartens and primary schools of rural areas was more than that in the urban areas.


   Conclusion Top


Considering the data obtained from this study, because oxyuriasis infection rate in kindergarten and primary school children of Babol was high and this disease is highly contagious, it is suggested that oxyuriasis be described in parent-teacher meetings for increasing the knowledge of families about this disease and regular scotch test done on children to diagnose the disease and treat the infected children and their whole family.


   Acknowledgment Top


The authors thank Mr. Javad Mosavi for his support in carrying out the present study.

 
   References Top

1.Kalantari M, Golnar AF, Sharifi I. Investigation prevalence and clinical signs of enterobiasis in children of pre-primary schools. Sabzevar Med School J 1996;4(4):42-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Daryani A, Abyar B, Ettehad GH. Rate of oxiuriasis in kinder gardens of Ardebil. Sci Res J Ardebil Med School 2003;6(8):18-22.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Abedi S, Izadi Sh, Davari B. Investigation of oxiuriasis in kindergartens of Isfahan with Graham method in 2003. Hormozgan Med J 2006;3(9):63-66  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Valizadeh M, Mobedi I. Investigation of oxiuriasis in schools of Urmia. Tabriz Med Univ 1998;4(4):67-72.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Talari SA, Rasti S. Investigation of Enterobius vermicularis in Kashan kinder gardens 1999, 3 rd Congress of Iranian Parasitologists, 2001.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Maraghi SH, Sami M. Investigation of oxyuriasis in kindergartens of Ahwaz by Graham method 1997, 2 nd Congress of Iranian Parasitologists, 1997  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Sharifi B, Abd KH. Determination of oxyuriasis prevalence in Zahedan schools 2000. Tabibe Shargh Med J 2000;5(8):25-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Maghrebi M. Determination of oxiuriasis in kinder gardens of south of Tehran, PhD thesis. Tehran Med School, 1994.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Lee KJ, Ahh YK. Enterobius vermicularis in primary schools children in Korea. Kor J Parasitol 2001; 39:32-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Guignard S, Arienti H, Freye L. Prevalence of enterobiosis in the children of Cordobe province. Eur J Epidemiol 2000; 16:287-93.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Esmaili A, Asmar M. Determination of intestinal parasites in primary schools students of Golestan province 1997-98. 3 rd Congress of Iranian Parasitologists, 2001.  Back to cited text no. 11
    

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Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Reza Youssefi
Department of Parasitology, Islamic Azad University, Babol-Branch
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.115171

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    Abstract
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   Results
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