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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 182-186

Some ecological aspects of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Darab district, Fars province, southern Iran


1 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 Research Center of Health Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Mamassani Higher Education Complex for Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
4 Darab Health Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kourosh Azizi
Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.205584

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Background: Phlebotomus species are solely responsible for transmitting leishmaniasis in the old world. The disease is endemic in several parts of Iran. Darab district located in Fars province of southern Iran is one of the most important endemic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sand flies and Methods: To identify the distribution of sand flies, a total of 5019 sand flies were collected in Darab district from May to September 2012. To determine the monthly activity, 2039 sand flies were biweekly collected from indoors and outdoors of two villages at lowland and highland regions. The relationship between the frequency of sand flies and wind speed (greater than 3 m/s as the influential factor) was studied. To determine the number of sand flies' bites per night, a native volunteer exposed his body every 1 h from sunset to sunrise. Results: In total, 13 species of Phlebotomine (five Phlebotomus spp. and eight Sergentomyia spp.) were identified. Besides, a relatively significant relationship was found between the frequency of sand flies and wind speed more than 3 m/s, especially in June and July 2012. Moreover, evaluation of the night blood-feeding peak during 8:00 P.M.–6:00 A.M. indicated that most bites occurred at 11:00-12:00 P.M. and 9:00-10:00 P.M. with 125 and 110 bites, respectively. Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi was the dominant species (49.2%). Additionally, wind speed more than 3 m/s showed a preventive effect on sand flies' activity. Thus, insecticide-treated nets are recommended to be used for all inhabitants, especially children and pregnant women, to prevent sand flies' bites through the night.


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