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Table of Contents   
LETTER TO THE EDITOR  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 293-294
Prevalence of opisthorchiasis detected by stool examination: Relationship to Chi River system in Thailand


1 Sanitation 1 Medical Academic Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China

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Date of Web Publication5-May-2017
 

How to cite this article:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Prevalence of opisthorchiasis detected by stool examination: Relationship to Chi River system in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:293-4

How to cite this URL:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Prevalence of opisthorchiasis detected by stool examination: Relationship to Chi River system in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Feb 23];10:293-4. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/1/293/205531
Dear Sir,

Opisthorchiasis of liver fluke infestation is an important tropical parasitic infestation. High prevalence is observed in countries of Indochina and countries near Mekong river.[1] The importance of this parasitic infestation is that long term chronic infestation can result in cholangiocarcinoma, which is a disease with high fatality.[2] To control this disease, the surveillance of infection in human host and intermediate host is an important attempt adding to the distribution of antiparasitic drugs. There are some interesting reports trying to relate the prevalence of the disease in human beings to geographic setting. In two duplicated recent reports by Rujirakul et al., “land use” is defined as an important determinant of the prevalence of human infection by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) study.[3],[4] However, those reports did not mainly focus on the exact geological and geographical parameters. Here, the authors try to find a relationship between the prevalence of opisthorchiasis detected by stool examination in human cases living in Chi River system area in the northeastern region of Thailand, where the highest prevalence of cholangiocarcinoma is documented. The authors find the relationship between the reported prevalence and the geography of the river. The reported prevalence in the recent reports of the last 5 years [3],[4],[5],[6] are used for further assessment. Mapping of the reported prevalence with relationship to geographic setting is shown in [Figure 1]. The relationship between prevalence and distance relating to Chi River system (distance from the origin along the river line and distance from the main river line) is assessed [Table 1]. It can be seen that the more far the setting along the river line of the river the more the prevalence. Also, the area at a more distance away from the main river line has a trend of lower prevalence. This relationship is, hereby, first reported in the global literature. The results can support a previous report on “the existence of a longitudinal gradient in trematode abundance along the river with a decreasing downstream-to-upstream continuum.”[7]
Figure 1: Mapping of the reported prevalence with relationship to geographic setting

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Talbe 1: Prevalence and distance relating to Chi River system

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Sithithaworn P, Andrews RH, Nguyen VD, Wongsaroj T, Sinuon M, Odermatt P, et al. The current status of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in the Mekong Basin. Parasitol Int 2012;61:10-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Lim JH. Liver flukes: The malady neglected. Korean J Radiol 2011;12:269-79.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Rujirakul R, Ueng-arporn N, Kaewpitoon SJ, Loyd RA, Kaewthani S, Kaewpitoon N. Risk areas of liver flukes in Surin province of Thailand using geographic information system. J Med Assoc Thai 2015;98(Suppl 4):S22-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Rujirakul R, Ueng-arporn N, Kaewpitoon S, Loyd RJ, Kaewthani S, Kaewpitoon N. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin province of Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16:2323-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.
Saengsawang P, Promthet S, Bradshaw P. Prevalence of OV infection in Yasothon province, Northeast Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012;13:3399-402.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Yeoh KW, Promthet S, Sithithaworn P, Kamsa-Ard S, Parkin DM. Re-examination of opisthorchis viverrini infection in northeast Thailand. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16:3413-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.
Blasco-Costa I, Koehler AV, Martin A, Poulin R. Upstream-downstream gradient in infection levels by fish parasites: A common river pattern? Parasitology 2013;140:266-74.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    

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Correspondence Address:
Beuy Joob
Sanitation 1 Medical Academic Center, Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.205531

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