Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 467
Forgotten human malarial species: Do not forget it

1 Sanitation Medical Academic Center, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, China

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Date of Web Publication22-Jun-2017

How to cite this article:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Forgotten human malarial species: Do not forget it. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:467

How to cite this URL:
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Forgotten human malarial species: Do not forget it. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Jun 4];10:467. Available from:
Dear Sir,

Malaria is an important tropical infection that is still a global problem. Malaria is caused by mosquito bite. There are many types of malaria. Presently, at least 9 species of Plasmodium parasite can cause human infection. Of these, the well-known human species are malariae, ovale, vivax, falciparum, and knowlesi. The new species as brasilianum and cynomolgi are the focused issue for researching. However, it should be noted that there are also some forgotten species. The forgotten pathogenic species are schwetzi and simium. The schwetzi species of malaria had been mentioned many years ago.[1],[2] The experimental studies confirmed the zoonotic property of the pathogen from monkeys to human beings. However, there is still no case of natural infection. Hence, it is still not fully classified as a human pathogen. As for the simium species of malaria, it had also been mentioned several years ago. A few human cases had been reported in Brazil.[3],[4] The confirmation was by animal inoculation test. However, the diagnosis is still controversial since there was lack of molecular biology confirmation at that time. Hence, the simium species of malaria is still in a debate as to whether it is an actual human pathogen or not. In addition to simium and schwetzi species of malaria, inui species of malaria should be focusedas well. There is a report that confirms the risk of exposure to it among human beings in Vietnam.[5] However, there is no report on human case yet.

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   References Top

Contacos PG, Coatney GR, Orihel TC, Collins WE, Chin W, Jeter MH. Transmission of Plasmodium schwetzi from the chimpanzee to man by mosquito bite. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1970;19:190-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
Rodhain J, Dellaert R. Studies on Plasmodium schwetzi E. Brumpt. III. Plasmodium schwetzi infection in humans. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop (1920) 1955;35:757-75.   Back to cited text no. 2
Deane LM, Deane MP, Ferreira Neto J. Studies on transmission of simian malaria and on a natural infection of man with Plasmodium simium in Brazil. Bull World Health Organ 1966;35:805-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Deane LM, Paumgartten Deane M, Ferreira Neto J. Studies on the transmission of simian malaria and on a natural infection of man by Plasmodium simium in Brazil. Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1967;63:100-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
Maeno Y, Quang NT, Culleton R, Kawai S, Masuda G, Nakazawa S, et al. Humans frequently exposed to a range of non-human primate malaria parasite species through the bites of Anopheles dirus mosquitoes in South-central Vietnam. Parasit Vectors 2015;8:376.  Back to cited text no. 5

Correspondence Address:
Beuy Joob
Sanitation Medical Academic Center, Bangkok
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.208716

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