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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 664-666
Determination of the air pollution index of atmospheric air in Aktobe


West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov State Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 030006 Aktobe, Republic of Kazakhstan

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Date of Web Publication21-Aug-2017
 

   Abstract 


Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the air pollution index of the micro territories of Aktobe. An aerogenic ingress of the xenobiotics is the foreground among the environmental factors for urban areas. In this regard, monitoring the state of the atmosphere of cities to establish quantitative regularities of risk for the health and development of the managerial decisions on their basis should be classified as priority hygiene problems. Material and Methods: Determination of API was performed based on data obtained by three stationary atmosphere state observation points of hydrometeorological center, located on the industrial area at a distance, respectively: point 1 (VI, VII microterritories) - 18 km; Point 2 (IV, V microterritories) - 12 km; and Point 3 (I, II, III microterritories) - 3 km. Atmospheric pollution index was calculated for the five substances with the highest values. The calculation was based on the content of following elements in the urban-industrial environment: iron, manganese, hexavalent chromium, magnesium, and vanadium which possess the immunotropic action. Results and Discussion: The results obtained by calculation of API show that the highest pollution index is observed at point that is 1.6 times greater than in the first observation point and 1.8 times in the second observation point. This is explained by the fact that the inhabitants of I, II, and III microterritories are the closest to the industrial zone and the most exposed to harmful air substances. Conclusion: This is explained by the fact that the inhabitants of I, II, and III microterritories are the closest to the industrial zone and the most exposed to harmful air substances.

Keywords: Air pollution index, atmospheric air, industrial area

How to cite this article:
Yermukhanova LS, Urazaeva S, Artukbaeva M, Azhenova K, Almakhanova M, Zhaubassova A, Mukyshova A K. Determination of the air pollution index of atmospheric air in Aktobe. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:664-6

How to cite this URL:
Yermukhanova LS, Urazaeva S, Artukbaeva M, Azhenova K, Almakhanova M, Zhaubassova A, Mukyshova A K. Determination of the air pollution index of atmospheric air in Aktobe. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Aug 25];10:664-6. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/664/213139



   Introduction Top


Current negative tendencies in the change of health indicators of the population and state of the human environment which sets a scientific problem “environment-human health” in the category of public policy objectives.[1] It is impossible to solve this problem without taking into account the entire range of doses and concentrations of xenobiotics at their complex ingress into the human body in specific living conditions. An aerogenic ingress of the xenobiotics is the foreground among the environmental factors for urban areas. In this regard, monitoring the state of the atmosphere of cities to establish quantitative regularities of risk for the health and development of the managerial decisions on their basis should be classified as priority hygiene problems.[2],[3]

To establish causal connection between the chemical elements of the environment and unfavorable factors for the health, it is necessary to select the scenario of multimedia exposure for the conditions of residential areas of the urban environment. Assessment of the exposure-the risk assessment stage, during which the quantitative ingress of the agent into the organism as a result of the impact of environmental factors is established and the average daily dose entering the body is also defined.[4],[5] During the monitoring, the important tasks are solved in hygienic assessment of the human habitat factors and the condition of health of the population, on revealing the cause-and-effect relationships between the state of health of the population and the factors that influence urban environment based on system analysis and risk assessment for the health of the population.[6]

Multicomponential, multifactorial, and omnidirectional nature that influences of the environment to have effect on human is determined by the methodological difficulties of comprehensive assessment of its quality and requires the development of new approaches to the assessment of the exposure of the chemical elements with the determination of foreground ways and the routes of their ingress.[7],[8]

The purpose of this study is to determine the air pollution index (API) of the microterritories of Aktobe.


   Materials and Methods Top


Determination of API was performed based on data obtained by three stationary atmosphere state observation points of hydrometeorological center, located on the industrial area at a distance, respectively: point 1 (VI, VII microterritories) - 18 km; Point 2 (IV, V microterritories) - 12 km; and Point 3 (I, II, III microterritories) - 3 km. Atmospheric pollution index was calculated for the five substances with the highest values.

The calculation was based on the content of following elements in the urban-industrial environment: iron, manganese, hexavalent chromium, magnesium, and vanadium which possess the immunotropic action.


   Results and Discussion Top


The multiplicity of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of these substances during the processing of the results was reduced to a multiplicity of MPC for substances of three hazard classes. This was due to the fact that the same level of air pollution is characterized by different multiplicity of MPC for substances of various classes of danger: the more dangerous substance (Class 1), the lower the rate of excess and vice versa, the less dangerous the substance (Class 4), the greater the rate of excess of MPC.

The data obtained are presented in [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3].
Table 1: Comprehensive assessment of air quality on the annual average of Point 1

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Table 2: Comprehensive assessment of air quality on the annual average at Point 2

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Table 3: Comprehensive assessment of air quality on the annual average at Point 3

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Based on the results for the VI and VII microterritories, an API is calculated, which is equal to 2.98 c.u.

Based on the results for the IV and V microterritories, API is calculated, which is equal to 3.4 c.u.

Based on the results for the I, II, and III microterritories, an API is calculated, which is equal to 5.5 c.u.

Thus, the results obtained by calculation of API show that the highest pollution index is observed at point that is 1.6 times greater than in the first observation point and 1.8 times in the second observation point. This is explained by the fact that the inhabitants of I, II, and III microterritories are the closest to the industrial zone and the most exposed to harmful air substances.

Current negative tendencies in change of the population health indicators and state of the human environment set a scientific problem “environment - human health” in the category of foreground public policy objectives.[1] It is impossible to solve this problem without taking into account the entire range of doses and concentrations of xenobiotics at their complex ingress into the human body in specific living conditions. An aerogenic ingress of the xenobiotics is the foreground among the environmental factors for urban areas. In this connection, monitoring of the state of the atmosphere of cities in order to establish quantitative regularities of risk for the health and development of the managerial decisions on their basis should be referred to the priority of hygiene problems.[2],[3]

In order to establish causal connection between the chemical elements of the environment and unfavorable factors for the health it is necessary to select the scenario of multimedia exposure for the conditions of residential areas of the urban environment. Assessment of the exposure - the risk assessment stage, during which the quantitative ingress of the agent into the organism as a result of the impact of environmental factors is established and the average daily dose entering the body is also defined.[4],[5] During the monitoring the important tasks are solved on hygienic assessment of the human habitat factors and the condition of health of the population, on revealing the cause-and-effect relationships between the state of health of the population and the influence of the factors of urban environment based on system analysis and risk assessment for the health of the population.[6]

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Onishchenko GG. Strategy of ensuring the well-being of the population in the conditions of Russia's social and environmental development for the period till 2010. Hyg Sanit 2002:3-14.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Boyev VM. Integrative assessment methodology for human and social-economic factors in the formation of risk to public health. Hyg Sanit 2009:4-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Yermukhanova LS. Uteshova Monitoring of Emissions of the Industrial Enterprises of Aktobe. All-Russian Scientific-practical Conference with International Participation. Modern Problems of Hygiene Science and Occupational Medicine; 2010. p. 119-22.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Boyev VM, Dunayev VN, Vereshchagin NN. Hygienic Assessment of Collective and Individual Electromagnetic Load Induced by Mobile Communication Devices. Methodological Recommendations. M.: Federal Centre of Sanitary Inspection of the Ministry of Health; 2002. p. 16.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Yermukhanova LS. Features of the immune status of the population in urban areas with a high content of heavy metals. Hyg Sanit 2012:17-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Salin EN, Glebovsky RV. Prenosological control system monitoring the state of public health and environmental quality habitat. Hyg Sanit 2006:9-11.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Onishchenko GG. Materials of the X All-Russian Congress of Hygienists and Sanitary Physicians. In: Onishchenko GG, Potapov AI, editors. Materials of the X All-Russian Congress of Hygienists and Sanitary Physicians. 2007. p. 32-45. [Book 1].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Onishchenko GG. Urban environment and human health. Hyg Sanit 2007:3-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    

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Correspondence Address:
Ludmila S Yermukhanova
Egizbaeva 7/6, Flat 39, Residential Complex Asyl Tau, Almaty
Republic of Kazakhstan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_209_17

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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