| Abstract|| |
Background: Spiritual health is regarded as one of the major dimensions of human health and an important approach in public health. On the other hand, happiness plays a vital role in mental and physical health and efficient social participation. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the components of spiritual well-being and happiness of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and correlational study, the statistical population consisted of all students at the Midwifery, Paramedics, Health, and Nursing Schools at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. The sample size was determined through the Cochran's sample size formula, and 277 students were selected through the simple random sampling. Further, for data collection, the spiritual health scale by Paloutzian and Ellison and the Argyle's revised Oxford happiness questionnaire were utilized. Then, data were analyzed through the descriptive (percentage, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson's correlation coefficient) in the SPSS Statistics Software version 21.0. Results: In the present study, the mean scores and standard deviations of students' spiritual health and happiness measured 3.95 ± 0.47 and 3.38 ± 0.24, respectively. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that there was a significant and positive relationship between the students' spiritual health and happiness. Further, the results of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient revealed that the correlation coefficient between the students' spiritual health and happiness measured 0.51. Conclusions: The results revealed that the students' spiritual health and happiness at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were average, and they significantly and positively correlated. Hence, it is recommended that the contents of spirituality, spiritual health, and their significance be incorporated in the core curriculums in universities.
Keywords: Happiness, spiritual well-being, university students
|How to cite this article:|
Jalilian N, Ziapour A, Mokari Z, Kianipour N. A study of the relationship between the components of spiritual health and happiness of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1010-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Jalilian N, Ziapour A, Mokari Z, Kianipour N. A study of the relationship between the components of spiritual health and happiness of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Feb 24];10:1010-4. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/4/1010/215883
| Introduction|| |
Spirituality is a fundamental concept that has appealed to many psychologists and mental health professionals over the past few decades. Nowadays, given the spiritual dimension of health, many suggestions have been presented for the inclusion of spiritual health in the definition provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the form of one of the dimensions of health. In the WHO's classification system of diseases known as “International Classification of Diseases-10,” the mental dimension was incorporated, too. Just like the relationship and interaction between the physical, mental, and WHO social dimensions, one's mental and spiritual health correlates with other dimensions of health, and they should be taken into consideration, too.
The incorporation of spiritual health in the concept of health was proposed by Osman and Russell, which familiarized the experts in health with one of the major aspects of personal and group life. In fact, the spiritual health, alongside other dimensions of health, is the latest dimension of health which coordinates the physical, psychological, and social aspects., In general, spiritual health denotes one's enjoyment of senses of acceptance, positive emotions, ethics, and positive mutual connection together with a superior and divine power ensuing from a dynamic and harmonious cognitive, emotional, and functional process., Some researchers are of the opinion that the spiritual health components can have tremendous effects on the physical health. Even these components can prevent physical diseases., Given that happiness is seen as one of the major mental needs of human beings and the fact that it has major effects on people's lives, happiness has been preoccupying them for a long time. Vitality and joy are the basic and essential needs of human beings, and they can be considered the major factors of the health of families and societies. In addition, hopefulness, efforts, and progress can become possible within a happy life., Various studies have been conducted about the relationship between students' spiritual health and happiness. For instance, Ebadi et al. showed that happiness significantly correlated with all of the dimensions of spiritual health. The results of a study performed by Mozafarinia et al. demonstrated that there were significant positive relationships between the students' happiness and all of the dimensions of spiritual health. Alimohammade and Janbozorge showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the psychological happiness and religious orientation as opposed to a negative relationship between the religious happiness and depression. In a study conducted about teens, Francis et al. reported that happiness and religious attitudes were significantly correlated. The results of a study performed by Saez et al. revealed that hopefulness, happiness, and internal religious orientation had significant positive correlations with spiritual health. Nowadays, university students are faced with numerous stresses, thereby endangering their mental and physical health. Under such circumstances, spirituality acts as a useful resource. However, university students have higher levels of knowledge, emotions, and spiritual health, they will have more lasting happiness. The spiritual health of citizens, especially students, is necessary for the dynamism, development, and advancement of societies.
Thus, it can be claimed that strengthening spirituality among students, as an important factor in health promotion, would lead to improvements in their mental health and happiness.
Given the significance of happiness in one's mental and physical well-being and its positive effects on the morale and performance of students, clarifying the importance of the spiritual dimension and its effects on health requires this relationship to be explained. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the components of spiritual well-being and happiness of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016.
| Materials and Methods|| |
In this cross-sectional and correlational study, the statistical population consisted of all students at the Midwifery, Paramedics, Health and Nursing Schools at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. The sample size was determined through the Cochran's sample size formula, and 277 students were selected through the simple random sampling. Further, for data collection, a demographic questionnaire, the spiritual health scale by Paloutzian and Ellison and the Argyle's revised Oxford happiness questionnaire were utilized. In addition, the inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the research and studying in the first semester of the academic year 2015–2016, whereas the incomplete questionnaires, university dropouts, and those failing to return the questionnaires were excluded from the study.
The demographic questionnaire
This section consisted of questions on gender, age, field of study, degree, mode of residence, and interest in one's major.
The spiritual health scale
This 20-item scale, developed by Paloutzian and Ellison (1979), consisted of two parts: religious and existential, with 10 questions in each part on six-point Likert scale, attracting a score in the range of 10–60. More to the point, for the positively worded questions, the numerical scoring scale run as follows: 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = somewhat disagree, 4 = somewhat agree, 5 = agree, 6 = strongly agree. Conversely, for negatively worded questions, the reverse scoring was employed as follows: 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = somewhat agree, 4 = somewhat disagree, 5 = disagree, 6 = strongly disagree. Moreover, the validity and reliability of the scale have been confirmed in Iran and other countries Ziapour et al., 2017; Alahbakhshian et al., 2010; and Paloutzian and Ellison CW, 2005.,,
The oxford happiness inventory
This instrument, first introduced by Argyle and Lu, is one of the most popular instruments in the field of self-evaluation, which has been used in most of studies into happiness. This questionnaire consisted of 29 questions with four-point Likert scale (1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = always) and five dimensions: satisfaction with life, self-esteem, subjective well-being, satisfaction, and positive mood. The total score of the questionnaire was in the range from 0 to 87. A Cronbach's alpha of 93% and test-retest reliability coefficient of 92% were reported for this questionnaire.
To commence the study, the required permits were obtained from the Vice Chancellery for the Department of Research and Technology at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences and the selected colleges. To determine the normal distribution of data, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was applied. Further, to determine the relationship between the different dimensions of personality traits and happiness, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient with repeated measures and stepwise multiple regression were employed to predict the level of happiness based on the dimensions of personality traits. All tests were analyzed through the SPSS Statistics 21 Software at the significance level of 0.05 (P < 0.05).
| Results|| |
In this study, of the whole 277 subjects under the study, the male population accounted for 49.5% (137 subjects), and the rest (140 subjects or 50.5%) were female. The mean and standard deviation of the age of subjects were 23.09 ± 4.6, and the 21–30 age group was in the majority (148 subjects or 53.4%). In addition, a large proportion of the population were doing bachelor's degrees (207 subjects or 74.4%). Moreover, 126 subjects (45.5%) were majoring in health. Furthermore, in terms of the mode of residence, 45.8% of the subjects (127 students) were residing in dormitories. In addition, 167 subjects (60.3%) had the highest interests in their majors [Table 1].
The mean scores and standard deviations of students' spiritual health and happiness are shown in [Table 2]. As for the subscales of spiritual health, the existential well-being had the highest mean and standard deviation (3.46 ± 0.48), while the religious well-being held the lowest mean and standard deviation (3.73 ± 0.70). As for the subscales of happiness, self-esteem had the highest mean and standard deviation (3.48 ± 0.36), while the subjective well-being held the lowest mean and standard deviation (3.31 ± 0.50) [Table 2]. The mean scores of spiritual well-being and happiness measured 3.59 ± 0.47 and 3.38 ± 0.24, respectively [Table 2].
|Table 2: The descriptive indexes of students' spiritual health and happiness and their components in the sample population|
Click here to view
Besides, the results of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between the students' spiritual health and happiness (P < 0.001 and r = 0.51) [Table 3].
|Table 3: The results of the correlation coefficients between the components of spiritual health and happiness|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the components of spiritual well-being and happiness of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016.
The results of the present study showed that the students' spiritual health and happiness at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were average. In the present study, the mean score and standard deviation of students' spiritual health measured 3.95 ± 0.47. It can be expressed that such results are expected from the Iranian society where religious and spiritual issues are valued. However, the Iran's religious atmosphere might have influenced how the respondents answered the questions. The results of studies performed by Hsiao et al., Alahbakhshian et al., Rezaee et al., and Chavoshian et al.,,, were indicative of the higher score of existential well-being than that of religious well-being, which was consistent with the results of the present study. The results of the present study showed that the mean score and standard deviation of students' happiness at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were average (3.38 ± 0.24). This finding was concurrent with the results of studies conducted by Parviz et al., Al-Naggar et al.,, and Sameera et al. In addition, the results of the present study indicated that the students' spiritual health significantly and positively correlated with happiness. In other words, the higher one's spiritual health, the higher his/her happiness will be.
Furthermore, the results were indicative of the fact that there were significant relationships between the students' happiness and all of the dimensions of spiritual health. This finding was consistent with the results of studies done by Jamali and Abasi, Watson and Clark, Judge and Bono, and Davis and Bordieri; Ebadi et al. showed that there were significant correlations between all of the dimensions of spiritual health and happiness. Similarly, Mozafarinia et al. showed that there was a direct relationship between one's spirituality and happiness. In addition, in a study conducted by Taghadosi and Fahimifar, it was concluded that low levels of depression were experienced by people with high levels of spirituality. Furthermore, Rahimi et al. concluded that the spiritual health of nursing and midwifery students was average. Besides, Hsiao et al. showed that spiritual health had negative relationships with clinical stress and depression, whereas a positive relationship was reported between spiritual health and health-promoting behaviors. In a study performed by Ziapour et al., it was demonstrated that the mean score of university students' religious well-being exceeded that of existential well-being. Manzari-Tavakoli and Eraqipoor concluded that there was a positive relationship between one's happiness and religiosity. From Shaw's point of view, since fleeting pleasures remain for a short period, human beings have always been looking for more lasting pleasures, and activities that people do in their search for spirituality, including helping and caring for others, can lead to happiness.
The results of a study conducted by Mookerjee and Beron revealed that the levels of happiness experienced by the citizen of countries with one religion exceeded those in countries practicing more than one religion.
| Conclusions|| |
The results of the present study revealed that the students' spiritual health and happiness at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were average, and their spiritual health and happiness significantly and positively correlated. Hence, it is recommended that the contents of spirituality, spiritual health, and their significance be included in the core curriculums in universities. Therefore, however, universities invest in the spiritual health of students, it will result in their happiness and increase their achievements, thereby students can take major steps toward their scientific and spiritual progress with more satisfaction and positive mood.
The authors hereby bestow much gratitude to all students at the Midwifery, Paramedics, Health and Nursing Schools at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for their participation in the present study.
Financial support and sponsorship
The research funding for this study was partially provided by Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Hsiao YC, Chiang HY, Chien LY. An exploration of the status of spiritual health among nursing students in Taiwan. Nurse Educ Today 2010;30:386-92.
Esfahani M. Spiritual health and comments. Q J Med Ethics 2010;14:41-9.
World Organization Health. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Malta; 2009.
Osman JD, Russell RD. The spiritual aspects of health. J Sch Health 1979;49:359.
O'Shea ER, Wallace M, Griffin MQ, Fitzpatrick JJ. The effect of an educational session on pediatric nurses' perspectives toward providing spiritual care. J Pediatr Nurs 2011;26:34-43.
Ziapour A, Khatony A, Jafari F, Kianipour N. Prediction of the Dimensions of the Spiritual Well-Being of Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran: The Roles of Demographic Variables. J Clin Diagn Res 2017;11:VC05-9.
Abbasi M, Azizi F, Shamsi Goshki E, Naseri Rad M, Lakah A. Conceptual and operational definition of spiritual health: A psychological study. J Med Ethics 2012;6:11-44.
Jelodar SM, Jelodar MB, Malmir M, Ziapour A. Factors affecting the excitement and violence in football (A Survey on Spectators and fans of Esteghlal and Persepolis). Soc Sci 2016;11:2541-6.
Abbasian L, Abbasi M, Gooshki ES, Memariani Z. Survey on the Scientific Position of the Spiritual Health and its Role in Preventing from Diseases: A preliminary Study. Med Ethics J 2016;4:83-104.
Kootesh BR, Raisi M, Ziapour A. Investigation of relationship between internet addict with mental health and quality sleep in students. Acta Med Mediterr 2016;32:1921-5.
Shokravi FA. Relationship between spiritual health and happiness among students. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2014;2:97-108.
Ziapour A, Zokaei A, Kahrizy F. A theoretical study of the standing of social investment in the health sector. Soc Sci 2016;11:3682-7.
Ebadi BN, Hosseini MA, Rahgoi A, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Biglarian A. The relationship between spiritual health and happiness among nursing students. J Nurs Educ 2016;5:23-30.
Mozafarinia F, Amin-Shokravi F, Hydarnia A. Relationship between spiritual health and happiness among students. J Health Educ Health Promot 2014;2:97-107.
Alimohammade K, Janbozorge M. The relationship between happiness with religious orientation and happiness with psycholo orientation and depression. J Psychol Relig 2008;1:131-46.
Francis LJ, Fisher JW, Annis J. Spiritual well-being and psychological type: A study among visitors to a medieval cathedral in Wales. Ment Health Relig Cult 2015;18:675-92.
Saez Y, Navarro C, Mochon A, Isasi P. A system for personality and happiness detection. Int J Artif Intell Interact Multimedia 2014;2:7-15.
Faribors B, Fatemeh A, Hamidreza H. The relationship between nurses' spiritual intelligence and happiness in Iran. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2010;5:1556-61.
Dehdari T, Yarahmadi R, Taghdisi M. The relationship between meaning in life, stress, anxiety and depression status among collage studentsof Iran University of medical science. J Educ Health Promot 2013;1:83-92.
Dehghani E, Nejat S, Yasiri M. The correlation between spiritual well-being and happiness in the administrative staff of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. Relig Health 2015;3:9-18.
Paloutzian RF, Ellison CW. Loneliness, spiritual well-being and the quality of life. In: Peplau D, Perlman D. Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Current Theory, Research and Therapy. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1982. p. 224-37.
O'Connor M, Guilfoyle A, Breen L, Mukhardt F, Fisher C. Relationships between quality of life, spiritual well-being, and psychological adjustment styles for people living with leukaemia: An exploratory study. Ment Health Relig Cult 2007;10:631-47.
Alahbakhshian M, Jafarpour Alavi M, Parvizi S, Haghani H. A Survey on relationship between spiritual wellbeing and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 2010;12:29-33.
Paloutzian RF, Park CL. Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. 2th
ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2005.
Argyle M, Lu L. The happiness of extraverts. Pers Individ Dif 1990;11:1011-7.
Alipour A, Noorbala A. A preliminary study of reliability and validity of the Oxford happiness inventory among students in Tehran University. J Thought Behav 1999;17:55-65.
Rezaee N, Behbahany N, Yarandy A, Hosseine F. Correlation between occupational stress and social support among nurses. Iran J Nurs 2006;19:71-8.
Chavoshian SA, Moeini B, Bashirian S, Feradmal J. The role of spiritual health and social support in predicting nurses' quality of life. J Educ Community Health 2015;2:19-28.
Parviz A, Khadijeh R, Hamideh A, Mana A, Amin Z. The relationship between religious beliefs, happiness with forgiveness among college students of Islamic Azad University. J Soci Psychol 2012;6:101-12.
Al-Naggar RA, Al-Jashamy KA, Yun LW, Isa ZM, Alsaror MI, Al-Naggar AG. Perceptions and opinion of happiness among university students in a Malaysian university. Case Rep Rev Artic 2010;11:198-203.
Sameera S, Rifqa AN, Madiha A, Tanzeela N, Maham B, Sohail I. Happiness as related to mental health among university students. Int J Humanit Soc Sci 2012;5:124-32.
Jamali T, Abasi R, editors. The study of relationshipbetween religious orientation and happiness in students of Payam Noor University. Tehran: The International Congress on Religious Culture and Thought; 2013.
Watson D, Clark LA. On traits and temperament: General and specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the five-factor model. J Pers 1992;60:441-76.
Judge TA, Bono JE. Relationship of core self-evaluations traits – Self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability – With job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. J Appl Psychol 2001;86:80-92.
Davis GL, Bordieri JE. Perceived autonomy and job satisfaction in occupational therapists. Am J Occup Ther 1988;42:591-5.
Rahimi N, Nouhi E, Nakhaee N. Spiritual health among nursing and midwifery students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Hayat 2014;19:74-81.
Hsiao YC, Chiang HY, Chien LY. An exploration of the status of spiritual health among nursing students in Taiwan. Nurse Educ Today 2010;30:386-92.
Manzari-Tavakoli A, Eraqipoor N. The relationship between religiosity and happiness among female students of Islamic Azad University of Kerman. Pertanika J Soc Sci Humanit 2014;22:45-88.
Shaw I. Society and mental health: The place of religion. Ment Health Rev J 2008;13:4-7.
Mookerjee R, Beron K. Gender, religion and happiness. J Socio Econ 2005;34:674-85.
Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]