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Table of Contents   
LETTER TO THE EDITOR  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1070-1071
Could Sandfly fever be isolated from HIV/AIDS patients as coinfection or not?


Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Date of Web Publication5-Oct-2017
 

How to cite this article:
Tavana AM. Could Sandfly fever be isolated from HIV/AIDS patients as coinfection or not?. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1070-1

How to cite this URL:
Tavana AM. Could Sandfly fever be isolated from HIV/AIDS patients as coinfection or not?. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 21];10:1070-1. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/4/1070/196672


Sandfly fever virus (SFV), which is called Papatasi fever, three day fever, or Phlebotomus fever is arboviral disease and it is classified in Phlebovirus genus, Bunyaviridae family, is mostly seen in the West of Asia, Persian Gulf region, and Europe.[1],[2] There are different serotypes. Among them serotypes Sicilian (SFSV), Cyprus (SFCV), Naples (SFNV), and Toscana virus (TOSV) are very important.[3] Sandfly fever, which is transmitted to human by different species of female sandflies, especially Phlebotomus spp. (Phlebotomus papatasi) starts with acute onset of high fever and lasts for 3 days. Headache, anorexia, and myalgia are the most common sign and symptoms.[3] But the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the immune system, and destroys or impairs their function. As the infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker and the person becomes more susceptible to other infections. The most advanced stage of HIV infection is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It may take 10-15 years (as incubation period) for an HIV-infected person to develop AIDS. HIV is transmitted through different ways such as, unprotected sexual intercourse, unsafe and contaminated blood transfusion, sharing of contaminated needles (in IV drugs abusers), and between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding.[4] Infection results in the breaking down of immune system and the body become susceptible to more infections and other diseases. AIDS refers to the most advanced stages of HIV infection, defined by the occurrence of any of more than 20 opportunistic infections or related cancers.[5] Globally, an estimated 36.9 million people were living with HIV in 2014.[6] Till now different “opportunistic” infections (OIs) are accompanied with HIV/AIDS (because of weakened immune system) including: Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, esophagus, or lungs; invasive cervical cancer; coccidioidomycosis; cryptococcosis; cryptosporidiosis; chronic intestinal (greater than 1 month's duration); cytomegalovirus disease (particularly CMV retinitis); encephalopathy; HIV-related herpes simplex chronic ulcer(s) (greater than 1 month's duration); or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis; histoplasmosis; isosporiasis; chronic intestinal (greater than 1 month's duration); Kaposi's sarcoma; lymphoma, multiple forms; Mycobacterium avium Scientific Name Search  complex; tuberculosis; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; pneumonia, recurrent; progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy;  Salmonella More Details septicemia, recurrent; toxoplasmosis of brain; and Wasting syndrome due to HIV infection.[7] But so far there is no report on occurrences of Sandfly fever with HIV/AIDS at present time. In spite of situation of HIV/AIDS in low-and middle-income countries which mostly infected with Leishmaniasis and Sandfly fever vectors, it can persuade that the coinfection of HIV/AIDS with Sandfly fever may be reported in the future. As everyone knows Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV/AIDS was reported earlier.[8],[9] In this letter to editor I would like to bring your attention that based on epidemiological data and geographical distribution of both diseases (infection of HIV/AIDS and Sandfly fever), the link between Sandfly fever and HIV/AIDS as coinfection is may be possible; but the clinical and laboratory investigation is needed to detect the virus in HIV/AIDS patients in infected area anyway. It should be find out the prevention measures in that situation too.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Tavana AM. Sand fly fever in the world. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2015;8:83-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
  [Full text]  
2.
Tavana AM. The seroepidemiological studies of sand fly fever in Iran during imposed war. Iran J Public Health 2001;30:145-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Torun Edis C, Yağçı Çağlayık D, Uyar Y, Korukluoğlu G, Ertek M. Sand fly fever outbreak in a province at Central Anatolia, Turkey. Mikrobiyol Bul 2010;44:431-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
http://www.who.int/topics/hiv_aids/en. [Accessed on 2016 June 20].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/hiv/facts/en/. [Accessed on 2016 June 20].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
7.
8.
Badaró R, Gonçalves LO, Gois LL, Maia ZP, Benson C. Grassi MF. Leishmaniasis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV-infected patients: a literature review. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2015;14:402-7.doi: 10.1177/2325957414555225. Epub 2014 Oct 20.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Martins-Melo FR, Lima Mda S, Alencar CH, Ramos AN, JrHeukelbach J. Epidemiological patterns of mortality due to visceral leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2014;108:338-47.doi: 10.1093/trstmh/tru050. Epub 2014 Apr 4.  Back to cited text no. 9
    

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Correspondence Address:
Ali Mehrabi Tavana
Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196672

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