Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Home About us Ahead Of Print Instructions Submission Subscribe Advertise Contact e-Alerts Editorial Board Login 
Users Online:4610
  Print this page  Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size

Table of Contents   
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1083-1085
May sand fly fever be seen with Malaria as co-infection or not?

Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication5-Oct-2017

How to cite this article:
Tavana AM. May sand fly fever be seen with Malaria as co-infection or not?. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1083-5

How to cite this URL:
Tavana AM. May sand fly fever be seen with Malaria as co-infection or not?. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Feb 19];10:1083-5. Available from:

Dear Editor

At present, there are no published reports about co-infection between sand fly fever and malaria. In this letter to the editor, I would like to bring your attention to this matter. As you all know that malaria is parasite disease and can be transmitted to human in different ways. The disease is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito via blood sucking.[1] There are many such Anopheles mosquitoes, which are infected with the parasites (P.falciparum P.malariae P.ovale P.vivax and P.knowlesi).[2],[3] Malaria kills thousands of people in the world, mostly, in developing courtiers, such as Africa and Asia.[4] There is no vaccine available for malaria presently, and the parasite and its vector are resistance to many antimalaria drugs and insecticides respectively.[5],[6] Therefore, Malaria remains a major health concern in many parts of the world [7],[8] [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Malaria map in the world.

Click here to view

Sand fly fever is a vector borne disease and it is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly, in west Asia and Europe.[9] Little is known about sand fly fever in many parts of world may be due to lack of seoepidemiological studies.[10] The disease could be transmitted from animals or infected patients to humans mostly via blood sucking by a small mosquito called sand fly.[11] There are different species of sand flies, but only the P.papatasi female has a main role in transferring the virus.[12] The virus belongs to the Bunyaviridea family and so far various stereotypes of virus have been introduced. Among viruses mentioned earlier, Sicilian, Naples, Toscana, are very common depending on the geographical distribution [13] [Figure 2]. In addition, little is known about sand fly fever in the areas infected with both malaria and leishmaniasis diseases.[14],[15] The disease has no vaccine or a specific cure at present. Both diseases have fever as main symptom of the disease. Accrued clinical and Para-clinical tests are required to differentiate the disease. I believe that the co-infection of Sand fly fever with Malaria is also possible. We need more care for patients who may be infected with both diseases at the same time with similar fever but different in origin.
Figure 2: Distribution of pappataci fever by serotype: T, Toscana, S, Sicilian; N, Naples.

Click here to view

The question could be answered in order to find out the fact in the future.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

“Malaria Fact sheet N 94”. WHO. March 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.  Back to cited text no. 1
Collins WE. “Plasmodium knowlesi: A malaria parasite of monkeys and humans”. Annual Review of Entomology 2012;57:107-21.10.1146/annurev-ento-121510-133540. PMID22149265  Back to cited text no. 2
Sarkar PK, Ahluwalia G, Vijayan VK, Talwar A. “Critical care aspects of malaria”. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 2009;25:93-103.doi:10.1177/0885066609356052. PMID20018606  Back to cited text no. 3
“Malaria Fact sheet N 94”. WHO. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 02 July 2016.  Back to cited text no. 4
Sinha Shweta, Medhi Bikash, Sehgal Rakesh, “Challenges of drug-resistant malaria”. Parasite 2014;21:61-doi:10.1051/parasite/2014059. ISSN1776-1042. PMID25402734.  Back to cited text no. 5
Matambo TS, Abdalla H, Brooke BD, Koekemoer LL, Mnzava A, Hunt RH. et al. Insecticide resistance in the malarial mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and association with the kdr mutation. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 2007;21:97-102.  Back to cited text no. 6
Mehrabi Tavana A, Ataee R A. Malaria as a major threat to military troops in the world. J Mil Med 2003;5:135-46.  Back to cited text no. 7
Khoobdel M, Mehrabi Tavana A, Vatandoost H, Abaei MR. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88. Iranian J Arthropod-Borne Dis 2008;2:28-36 M.  Back to cited text no. 8
Tavana AM, Sand fly fever in the world. AnnTropMedPublicHealth 2015;8:83-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
Tavana AM. Sand fly fever: The disease which must be introduced to doctors, health care workers and public now. Health Med 2012;6:3657-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
Tavana AM. These roepidemiological studies of sand fly fever in Iran during imposed war. Iran J Public Health 2001;30:145-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
Brett-Major DM, Claborn DM. Sand fly fever: What have we learned in one hundred years?. Military Medicine 2009;174:426-31.  Back to cited text no. 12
Tavana AM. Mini review on sand fly fever. J Entomol 2007;4:401-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
Dionisio D, Esperti F, Vivarelli A, Valassina M. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of sand fly fever. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2003;16:383-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
Tavana AM, Why cutaneous leishmaniasis could not be prevented completely? An open discussion. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2011;4:52-3.  Back to cited text no. 15
  [Full text]  

Correspondence Address:
Ali Mehrabi Tavana
Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196741

Rights and Permissions


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *

    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded27    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal