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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 1215-1220

Social determinants of tuberculosis contagion in Malaysia


Political Science Department, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains , 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Khairiah Salwa Mokhtar
Political Science Department, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_371_17

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Context: Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily an airborne disease caused by the infection of a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which results in more than two million deaths per year worldwide. TB infection is spread when someone with active, infectious TB coughs, or sneezes. In Malaysia, TB is fast rising as a noncommunicable disease, with a death rate higher than death of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-AIDS. For instance, in 2015 health indicators, reported by the Ministry of Health, the mortality rate for TB was 5.33%, compared to HIV/AIDS at 1.91%. Aims: This study attempts to review the social determinants of TB transmission in Malaysia. Methods: This is a qualitative study and employs in-depth interview technique for data collection. A list of 36 informants was identified and approached; 22 of them agreed to be interviewed. The elites were chosen for their background, which related to public health and TB patient management. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The study finds that the social determinants of TB transmission are related to the following factors: unhealthy lifestyle, inconvenient working environment, negative public perception and stigma, and financial concerns. Conclusions: The identification of as many TB contributing factors as possible is crucial in developing and implementing integrated programs and initiatives that involve all stakeholders in addressing and curbing the spread of the disease.


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