| Abstract|| |
Background: Despite ascribed intellectual ability, academic success can be affected by progress motivation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the tuition-paid and free tuition dental students' incentives in choosing their field of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in 2016 which has been carried out in a descriptive-analytical and comparative form. Methods: The statistical population includes all 484 students who study professional doctorate of dentistry at the University. Sampling was carried out using census method. The 118 free tuition students and 58 tuition-paid students filled out questionnaires. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, frequency, frequency percentage, mean, Kolmogorov–Smirnov's normality test, and Mann–Whitney's nonparametric test for comparison of the mean were utilized using SPSS Version 21 software. Results: Having an independent clinic (0.75 ± 3.40), a high economic income (0.81 ± 3.16) and a proper social position (0.83 ± 3.09) were, respectively, the most important incentives in free tuition students to choose their field of study. In addition, having an independent clinic (0.53 ± 3.59), a proper social position (0.88 ± 3.17) and a high economic income (0.82 ± 3.09) were, respectively, the most important incentives for tuition-paid students to choose their field of the study. Discussion and Conclusion: Although access to a prestigious job and therefore, positions of high economic interests were the major motive of students in both groups, their excessive tendency toward dentistry has made the prospects of this field of study dim due to the saturation of the labor market and thus reduction of job mobility.
Keywords: Dental education, dental schools, dentistry, discipline choice, Iran
|How to cite this article:|
Gilav A. The comparison of the tuition-paid and free tuition dental students' incentives in choosing their field of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Southwest of Iran. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1254-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Gilav A. The comparison of the tuition-paid and free tuition dental students' incentives in choosing their field of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Southwest of Iran. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 23];10:1254-9. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/5/1254/217517
| Introduction|| |
Despite ascribed intellectual ability, academic success can be affected by progress motivation. Motivation has been known as a most important factor in directing people for doing activities. Lack or low of motivation affect all domains of human functions and caused negative effects. Students' academic motivation is one of the most important challenges of universities, and has great effects on the outputs of educational systems. Motivation is an internal feeling that provokes, strengthens and finally leads behaviors. For activities such as learning, there are various incentives drives.,,, The choice of the field of study and consequently a career is one of the most important decisions everyone has to make since this will satisfy both the material and mental needs of the individual. Studies have shown that dental students, due to lack of concern for employment after graduation, are in better mental state compared to other students. In a study conducted by Baharvand et al. in 2011, Private practice, prestigious profession with high social status were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice. Furthermore, in a study carried out by Neamatollahi et al. in 2014, high income, social status, job security decent working time of dental profession and were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice. Furthermore, in a study conducted by Bourzgui et al. in 2014, Desire to help people” and “job opportunities. Furthermore, in a study conducted by Hamedi Rad et al. in 2014, Social status and interesting in the field, family recommendation and contact with community members, high income, and serving the community were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice at Iran. In outside of Iran and a study conducted by Belsi et al. in 2014, job security, desire to work with people, and degree leading to recognized job, were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice at England  also a study conducted by Anbuselvan et al. in 2013, self-interesting, social prestige, and study population were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice in India. In a study carried out by Rashmi et al. in 2014, caring profession, private practice, influence, profession, flexibility, remuneration, and versatility were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice at Bengaluru, India. In a study conducted by Banabilh in 2013, Economic factors, vocational, personal encouragement and professional factor were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice at Yemen. In a study conducted by Mashlah 2012, Personal goals, job vacancies, financial independence, and attaining a good reputation were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice at Syrian Arab Republic. In a study conducted by Nashleanas et al. in 2014, Planned to immediately enter private practice after dental school were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice at USA Iowa city. In a study conducted by dos Santos et al. in 2013 Working in both the public and private sectors, income, and job security were the most important incentives for dentistry students' discipline choice at Brazil.
Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS) is one of the most prestigious universities in Iran and also bridge 1 of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education that has nearly 650 faculty members, 7000 students studying in the undergraduate, graduate, Professional Doctorate, MD, PhD, Specialist, fellowship in 163 kind of courses and 15000 nonfaculty employees who are eligible to be educated with various tasks throughout Khuzestan Province. Its name was taken from the university with same name established 1745 years ago in the north of Khuzestan Province which is remembered as the first university of medical sciences., In Iran, due to some special and privileged attractions of dentistry discipline, the first choice of volunteers who want to enter university is dentistry that in Iran, because of some special and privileged attractions of dentistry discipline, the first choice of volunteers who want to enter university is dentistry. They usually choose it regardless to their interests and talents. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the tuition-paid and free tuition dental students' incentives in choosing their field of study at AJUMS in 2016 which has been carried out in a descriptive-analytical and comparative form.
| Methods|| |
The present study entitled “the comparison of the tuition-paid and free tuition dental students” incentives in choosing their field of study at AJUMS” has been carried out in a descriptive-analytical and comparative form in January 2016. The statistical population include all 484 students who study dentistry professional doctorate at the University that is all 220 tuition-paid dentistry students and all 264 tuition-free professional doctorate students. Sampling was carried out using census method and through distribution of questionnaires among all students. The 118 (45 males and 73 females) free-tuition students and 58 (22 males and 36 females) tuition-paid students filled out the questionnaires. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and its reliability was confirmed by coefficient Cronbach alpha of 0.89. The first part of questionnaire includes personal information including age, gender, type of admission quota, semester, etc., The second part of questionnaire is self-administered and is about discipline choice incentives of students. The questions have been scored quantitatively from 1 to 4 (4 Likert scale options [1–4 points]) including very effective 4 points, effective 3 points, less effective 2 points, and 1 point for ineffective. The highest point has been intended as the top priority in choosing the discipline and the lowest point as the least important factor toward choosing this field of study. The descriptive statistics, frequency, frequency percentage, mean, Kolmogorov–Smirnov's normality test, and Mann–Whitney's nonparametric test for comparison of the mean were utilized. To analyze the data using (SPSS 21, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). In[ addition, the necessary moral considerations including satisfying the respondents and assuring them regarding confidentiality of their comments as well as obtaining the necessary license from the Research Deputy of AJUMS have been observed in this study.
| Results|| |
In [Table 1], all demographic specifications of research respondent' who are the dentistry students of AJUMS have been specified in two tuition-free and tuition-paid sections and according to the place of education, gender, quota for admission in national university entrance examination, native or nonnative, school year and age.
Based on [Table 2], the discipline choice incentives of all Ahvaz Jundishapur University's dental students who have participated in this study have been specified in 12 components and in score order from maximum point of 4. In this study, having an independent clinic or Job autonomy with an average of 47.3, a high economic income with an average of 15.3 and a proper social position with an average of 12.3 were, respectively, the most important incentives of dentistry students to choose their field of study. The subsequent priorities of the subjects in the study were job attractiveness of dental profession (2.71) suitable job status (2.69), individual's perdurable desire (2.59), helping others (2.58), student's top rank at the university entrance examination (2.42), carrying on study in specialty in one of the dentistry trends (2.36), successful marriage (2.03), interest in the field of dentistry (1.81), and advice of others (1.63).
In [Table 3], the incentives for discipline choice among the female and male university students were compared with each other using Kolmogorov–Smirnov's normality test and Mann–Whitney's nonparametric test for mean comparison where no significant difference was observed between them in terms of high economic income and successful marriage (P = 0.000). Male students give greater importance to both high income and have a successful marriage. Other factors affecting the dental discipline from the perspective of males and females in this study have almost equal importance. Although other factors differ with each other between the two groups, this difference is not significant at the error level of 0.05.
|Table 3: The comparison of effective factors in selecting dentistry discipline in terms of place and gender|
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In [Table 4], the incentives for discipline choice among the tuition-free and tuition-paid university students were compared with each other using Kolmogorov–Smirnov's normality test and Mann–Whitney's nonparametric test for mean comparison in which a significant difference was observed between them in terms of advice of others and background with significance level of 0.047 (P = 0.047) and student's top rank at the university entrance exam with significance level of 0 (P = 0.000). The free-tuition students paid more attention to the advice of others and the background and student's top rank at the university entrance examination. Other factors affecting the dental discipline from the viewpoint of males and females students in this study have almost equal importance. Although other factors differ with each other between the two groups, this difference is not significant at the error level of 0.05.
|Table 4: The comparison of effective factors in selecting dentistry discipline in terms of place of study|
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| Discussion|| |
Having an independent clinic, a high economic income and a proper social position were, respectively, the most important incentives of free-tuition students to choose their field of study. Furthermore having an independent clinic, proper social position and a high economic income were, respectively, the most important incentives of tuition-paid students to choose their field of study. The item high economic income has greater importance among tuition-free students compared to tuition-paid ones. The item high economic income has also greater importance among male students compared to female students. According to findings of this study, both tuition-paid and free-tuition groups pointed out having an independent clinic or job autonomy and consequently good economic income of dental profession as the most important factor influencing their decision in the choice of Dentistry discipline and proper social status was the next influential factor in this choice. In fact, the incentives of both groups were related in some way with economic issues and easiness of dental profession. Regression the results of the study are compatible Bourzgui et al., Baharvand et al., Hamedi Rad et al., Neamatollahi et al. and Memarpour et al. which the material incentives are important factor on choosing dentistry discipline by the Iranian dental students. They are also in line with Rashmi et al. in India, Bengaluru city, Banabilh in Yemen, Mashlah in Syria  Nashleanas et al. in USA Iowa city, and Dos Santos et al. in Brazil  who consider economic reasons as the most important incentives for choosing dentistry discipline among students.
Gilavand considered the comparison of Iranian and Foreign student's motivations to choose dentistry field of study in 2016. He concluded that it seems that with regard to the high unemployment rate of university graduates in Iran, the most important incentives of applicants who want to enter the dentistry discipline are high income and particular social prestige at this major. Moreover, high income and independent job situations are the most important factors in Foreign students for choosing this field of study in the overseas studies  which is consistent with the study.
It seems that today, Iranian women are more willing than ever to have a job and an independent income and this causes a significant number of female students with good rating at the state university entrance examination prefer dentistry to other disciplines due to the benefits associated with professional nature of it. In recent years, we have witnessed that the number of male dental students has had more growth compared with females. This is consistent with the findings of different researchers in Iran and outside Iran that had studied gender role in tendency toward dentistry discipline and concluded that females' toward choosing the dental profession is growing.,,,,,,,,,,,,,
Undoubtedly, many of young people in the country, to be able to find a better job in the future or to increase the likelihood of their employment, enter universities to carry on their education. Therefore, with regard to the issue of job security and with the view that people with employment in the dental profession would not be worried about unemployment or losing their job, choose the dentistry as their future academic discipline. Hence, it seems that with regard to the high unemployment rate of university graduates and the limitations necessary to state employment and other organizations in the country, the attention of applicants willing to study in dentistry discipline as a means to make a reliable and independent income along with the specific social prestige of it have been increased. In this regard, Gilavand et al., in a research conducted in 2015 entitled investigation and comparison of depression and anxiety among native and nonnative dentistry students of AJUMS, have reported students' depression and anxiety as to be normal and have found it one of the reasons for dental students' lack of concern for employment after graduation. It is line with this research concerning the first choice of students is to have an independent clinic and as a result their self-employment ability.
| Conclusion|| |
Although today dentistry is the first choice of many applicants who want to enter universities in Iran, indiscriminate admission of students in dentistry discipline and excessive desire of students and their families (who played a significant role in choosing this field of study) to it has excessively increased the tendency toward this field of study that itself has beclouded the future prospects of the discipline due to reducing the possibility of occupational mobility and social benefits and the labor market, and it seems that in the coming years, the least job opportunities will no longer exist in the big cities for graduates of this field of study. It can be concluded that in general the results of this study are compatible with the majority of domestic and foreign studies conducted in this regard. The medical education system of each country, because of the need, relentlessly continues to educate the student and does not wait for the creation of motivation and desire in students. These are educational systems that must increase their efforts, in addition, to maintain the status quo, improve the learning environment and emphasize on the related components namely learner, teacher, educational and welfare facilities, and the provision of appropriate training programs and by creating harmony between the theory and practical lessons send students toward work environment with greater readiness and incentive and deliver wise and skilled workforce to community. Undoubtedly, with respect to the horizon of 20 years program of Iran and software movement, any investment in this regard appears necessary.
In later researches, for obtaining more accurate results, it is necessary to identify students' incentives for discipline choice and expand the range of assumptions before entering the university; because this issue and such human subjects are one of those issues that are not dependent on and limited to one or more variables. The role of variables such as parental expectations, their educational style, class and school atmosphere, attitudes and religious beliefs, the effect of different feedbacks, thinking styles, study habits, perfectionism, perceptions of competence and autonomy should also be considered in this process.
This study has been extracted out of research projects approved by the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (Department of Education Development Center, AJUMS). (No. 95116).
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Department of Education Development Center, Employed Expert on Faculty Appointments, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]