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Table of Contents   
LETTER TO THE EDITOR  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 1397-1398
Cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income nations: Responding to the leading cause of mortality


Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai, Tamil Nadu, India

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Date of Web Publication6-Nov-2017
 

How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income nations: Responding to the leading cause of mortality. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1397-8

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income nations: Responding to the leading cause of mortality. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 May 22];10:1397-8. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/5/1397/196757


Dear Sir,

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) comprise of a set of conditions of the heart and blood vessels, and have been ranked as the leading cause of mortality worldwide.[1] In fact, in excess of 17 million deaths have been attributed to these diseases, which accounts for 31% of overall deaths reported across the globe in 2012.[2] Further, these diseases result in catastrophic expenditure of the households and even contribute immense financial burden on the health sector.[1],[3] As the onset of the disease or the development of the associated complications can be delayed by implementation of appropriate primary prevention strategies, the current estimates clearly suggest major gaps in the health infrastructure and failure of the public health system to deal with the existing challenges.[1],[2],[3]

CVDs has emerged as a major cause of concern in low- and middle-income nations as they account for 75% of the reported global deaths, residents are devoid of the integrated services at primary level of health-care, and have a limited access to effective and equitable health-care, owing to which both the early diagnosis and prompt and adequate treatment never reaches to the people.[1],[2] Thus, more often than not, large proportions of patients present in the advanced stages and simultaneously have to deal with the issue of reduced productivity, sickness absenteeism, and impairment in the quality of life.[2],[3]

The incidence and associated complications are determined by the prevalence of various risk factors like hereditary, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco or alcohol use, obesity, other existing comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia), stress, poverty, urbanization, and population ageing.[3],[4],[5] Thus, for the prevention and control of the disease, primary prevention measures are directed at the population and high-risk individual level to counter the known potential risk factors.[4] Strategies like implementing comprehensive tobacco control action plan, imposing additional taxes on diet products, including alcohol to restrict their consumption, enabling physical activity through building jogging and cycling tracks, and targeting school children to inculcate healthy lifestyles, comprises population-level interventions.[2],[4] The measures to address the needs of high-risk groups aim toward neutralizing the impact of existing risk factors in an individual and hence its utility is restricted.[4],[5]

In addition, interventions to create awareness among the general population, promotion of early diagnosis through screening activities, to ensure complete treatment by ensuring uninterrupted supply of the desired drugs, or offer surgical modality of treatment to the appropriate candidates are also expected to improve the health standard of the diagnosed patients.[3],[4],[5] In fact, in an attempt to reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases, including CVDs, a global action plan has been developed to minimize the incidence of premature deaths by 2025.[1],[3] Further, there is a plan to assess the progress annually and take corrective measures to bridge the existing gaps.[1]

To conclude, CVDs are a major public health concern affecting the lives of millions of people across the globe, especially those from low-and middle-income nations. The need of the hour is to formulate health policies which assist stakeholders in creating a conducive environment to enable people to make healthy lifestyle choices and thus delay the onset of the development of diseases.

Acknowledgement

S.R.S. contributed in the conception or design of the work, drafting of the work, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work.

P.S.S. contributed in the literature review, revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work.

J.R. contributed in revising the draft, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)-Fact sheet; 2016. Available from: http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/. [Last accessed on 2016 July 10].   Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. Geneva:WHO Press; 2014. p.1-13.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Coronary heart disease: pandemic in a true sense. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2013;5:125-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
WHO, World Heart Federation, World Stroke OrganizationGlobal atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention control-Policies, strategies interventions. Geneva: WHO Press; 2011. p. 1-26.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sanghavi M, Gulati M. Cardiovascular disease in women: Primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2016;43:265-85.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    

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Correspondence Address:
Saurabh R Shrivastava
3rd Floor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai Village, Thiruporur, Guduvancherry Main Road, Sembakkam Post, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196757

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