| Abstract|| |
Objective: The results of the conducted studies investigating the prevalence of machinery life and increase of cardiovascular diseases imply that motor poverty and especially low aerobic power and increase in blood fat are among primary risk factors in cardiovascular diseases. To prevent these discomforts, doing regular physical and exercise activities are recommended; hence, people's participation in physical activities and their awareness of physical status and well-being factors, especially blood fat and cardiovascular profile are of utmost importance. The general purpose of this study, besides awareness of the participants' physical well-being, is to investigate the effect of exercise activities on physical fitness and blood fat profile in the staff of Isfahan University of Technology. Methods: A semi-experimental method with clinical experiments was used in this research, and the effect of 8 weeks of 45–50-min sessions of exercise, twice a week, and on the staff's physical performance was investigated. An experimental and a control group were randomly selected from volunteer male staff. The research variables were measured from the participants, and the results were addressed through SPSS software and statistical formulas and considering research hypotheses regarding the degree of variable changes. Results: The results of this study showed that comparing the degree of changes of the variables of body weight, body mass index, 1600-meter race, sit-ups 94-meter race, Swedish swimming, and blood cholesterol was significantly changed at P < 0.05 level after training period compared to before-training, and there was no significant change at P < 0.05 level in other research variables. Moreover, it was observed that the degree of changes of the variables of 1600-meter race, sit-up, stretch board, Swedish swimming, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein, and the experimental group was significantly different at P < 0.05 level compared to the control group, and there was no significant difference at P < 0.05 level. Conclusion: It was observed from the results of this study that aerobic exercise trainings cause the increase of power, cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, and suitable changes in blood fat and the degree of the staff's flexibility. Therefore, attending program to increase the staff's physical activity level and physical fitness seems necessary. Furthermore, to control body fat, it is advised that men regularly measure their blood cholesterol after the age of 35, and LDL should be lower than 130 mg/dl but better to be lower than 100 mg/dl in the patients suffering from cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Body mass index, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, physical fitness factors, three glyceride
|How to cite this article:|
Tehrani JH, Khorzoghi MB. Identifying and investigating exercise activity on the factors of physical fitness and well-being of the staff at the Isfahan University of Technology. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1661-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Tehrani JH, Khorzoghi MB. Identifying and investigating exercise activity on the factors of physical fitness and well-being of the staff at the Isfahan University of Technology. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 May 23];10:1661-7. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/6/1661/222693
| Introduction|| |
Exercise is one of the most important activities for humans with the objective of growing and developing their physical, moral, and mental dimensions. In the present societies, exercise is attributed as a human and educational affair. Today, attaining well-being needs public attempt to provide appropriate health and sanitation for all. The advantage of participating in continual exercise activities can be useful in preventing some diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, spiritual problems, and the decrease the event of cardiovascular disease. Taking the development of technology, people's daily activities are mostly limited which has resulted in cardiovascular accidents becoming the second causes of death after driving accidents. This issue is more important in the low-activity professions such as university jobs., Currently, low physical activity is regarded as a factor through which the people's lifestyle can be changed, and it is recommended that exercises should be added to people's daily activities. The degree of physical fitness can indirectly show a meticulous criteria to determine the trueness of the people's life method. Physical fitness means having desirable physical power to do daily exercise activities and suitable physical activities. This index plays the most important role in improving physical status and is among related parameters to the health and the foundation of doing most of the skills and exercise at different levels. Most researchers have shown that every kind of physical activity is better than inactivity, but regular exercise is followed by preventive and effective advantages for physical dimensions. One of the outcomes of inappropriate lifestyle is obesity and increased blood fat. In this condition, the stored fat called triglyceride (TG) is collected in the tissues on the one hand, and the amount of cholesterol is increased in the blood on the other hand. Increased level of cholesterol and fat in the blood can cause damage to blood vessels due to its accumulation in the vessels leading to the formation of plaque which results in blood vessel narrowing. Consequently, the risk of cardiovascular diseases and brain stroke increases. Based on investigations which analyzed the effect of exercise programs on the staff, it was concluded that programs which increase physical activity level and fitness are necessary in the society. To offer services to all collegiate (students, faculty members, the staff, and all clients to the university) and also to reach its administrative, research, and students ideas, the university requires powerful and efficient people, so that the staff's desirable physical fitness and well-being can have an important role in offering services to the collegiate and reaching its major objective. Consistently, it is necessary to recognize the degree of the staff's fitness and well-being first, and then, based on the acquired results, exercise activity program is offered as most of the studies have shown that regular participation in medium level and perpetual exercise has significant effect on the maintenance of better health. Not only this process provides an efficient workforce for the university but also it is effectively reaching the aims of the university while in case of economic aspect, healthy, and stronger human resources results in better work and higher efficiency, which enable the university to make some savings.
The purpose of the present study is to help evaluate factors associated with staff's physical fitness and well-being as well as performing exercise activities to enable them achieve physical fitness and well-being at desirable level. In addition, the effect of exercise activities on factors of physical activities such as cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance (power, flexibility, and composition), and also well-being factor including blood fat profile was evaluated based on an 8-week activities program.
The research method is a semi-experimental, and it is conducted on human sample after receiving approval from the ethical committee which was carried out through pretest and posttest measurements related to the training along with measuring blood variables.
Subjects and the manner of their selection
The study population included all 1500 male staff at the Isfahan University of Technology in 2015. They were selected from volunteer male staff at the Isfahan University of Technology, who desired condition (i.e., total health, not having records of blood fat inhibitor drugs use, etc.), and were randomly divided into the control (n = 14) and the experimental groups (n = 14). The attributes and characteristics of the participants are presented in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Male and female staff's characteristics in the experimental and control groups|
Click here to view
- Independent variable: Including selected exercise training programs
- Dependent variable: Including changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscles endurance fitness, briskness fitness, flexibility fitness, power fitness of shoulder muscles, and body composition before and after exercise training. Changes in blood fat profile including high-density lipoprotein (HDL), TG, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) before and after exercise training period.
Applied instruments in the study and their features
- Digital Medicine Scale of SECA Model 769 manufactured in Germany
- Using Olympus AU5400 evaluator.
Instruction to administer exercise program
Training program: the experimental group participated in a 45-min session twice a week for 8 weeks. This training program includes dynamic submaximal aerobic activities, and a protocol including 20 min of slow race, 10 min of exercise movements, 10 min of warm-up movements, 10 min of endurance training (sit-up and Swedish swimming), 5 min of fast movements, and 5 min of cooling down. Considering the participants' primary physical fitness, the training at primary sessions were administered with low intensity and increased at final weeks. At primary sessions, the participants ran for 20 min with the intensity of 50% of maximum heartbeat and biweekly, 10% increase in the intensity of running and after running, there were some warm-up movements. During primary weeks, the participants did sit-ups in three phases and 10 correct movements in each phase. In each session, the number of sit-ups increased compared to the previous session to that extent that in the final week, the participants did from 30 to 40 sit-up movements in each phase. To increase the shoulder muscles endurance, Swedish swimming test was considered. At the 1st week, the participants did Swedish swimming training in three phases and with 10 repetitions of correct movement. In each session, 1–2 movements were added to the number of repetitions. To prevent any kind of accident, the participants were advised to stop training in case of exhaustion. Hence, the intensity of training was controllable and regulated.
Considering the normal distribution of the population and through applying SPSS software, after investigating and determining the means and other statistical data, the independent sample t-test with P < 0.05 alpha and degree of freedom of n1+n2-2 and two-tailed range. To investigate the changes of variables under consideration between the experimental and control groups and dependent sample t-test with alpha P < 0.05 and degree of freedom of n-1, and two-tailed range were used to investigate the changes of variables under consideration in the experimental and control groups, and the achieved information was analyzed and calculated through P values, and P was considered significant at the level lower than 0.05.
In [Table 2], the statistical characteristics of research variables related to the male participants of the experimental and control groups including the mean and standard deviation of the scores, and the amounts of t-test obtained from the difference between all research variables in the experimental group and between the experimental and control group were presented, and the difference significance was specified. The comparative graph of the mentioned means was given in [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10] ,[Figure 11].
|Table 2: The statistical findings of the study related to the male experimental group before and after exercise program and the experimental group and male control group after training program|
Click here to view
|Figure 1: Mean body weight of the experimental and control groups before and after exercise training program|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: The mean BMI of the experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Mean running time of 1600 m. Experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Mean number of Sit-Up in the experimental and control groups before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 5: Mean test time of 4 x 9 m. Experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 6: The mean flexibility (Stretch board test) of subjects in the experimental and control groups before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 7: The mean number of Swedish swimmers in the experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 8: The mean LDL in the experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 9: The mean HDL in the experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 10: The mean Cholesterol in the experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
|Figure 11: The mean Three glyceride in the experimental and control group before and after the exercise program|
Click here to view
The results of this study regarding its general objective show that one session of aerobic exercise training had different effect on the variables under consideration as it was observed that there was no significant effect among all research variables at X = 0.05 level, and significant effect was seen just in some variables which are outlined below:
- One session of exercise training program has significant effect at P < 0.05 level on the degree of body weight, mass body index, 1600-meter race, the number of sit-ups, number of Swedish swimming, 9.4-meter race, and cholesterol of male participants in the experimental and control groups
- One session of exercise training program caused a significant difference at P < 0.05 level between the degree of 1600-meter race, the number of sit-ups, the number stretch boards, the number of Swedish swimming, the degree of LDL, and the degree of HDL of male staff in the experimental and control group after finishing exercise trainings.
| Discussion and Conclusion|| |
Our study showed that the proposed model of exercise training dramatically improved some physical fitness indexes such as cardiorespiratory endurance, shoulder muscles endurance, abdominal muscles endurance, muscular power, and also body mass index, although no dramatic improvement in the indexes such as agility and general health was observed. The staff participated in the current study were of high average age and nonaerobic and intensive exercises such as fastness and agility tests with short intervals put great pressure on them, hence, sport specialists should plan a comprehensive and standard program for the staff's exercise during 24 h a day. Taking into consideration the technological growth, today, the people's daily activities are mostly limited which had led to cardiovascular accidents being classified as the second leading cause of death after driving accidents. This issue is more important in low-activity jobs such as collegiate jobs. Hence, the staff should have enough movement besides having enough knowledge about appropriate physical activity. A study by Napradit et al. showed that physical fitness is one of the effective factors on the health of society and is suitable to undertake different exercise activities which can be considered as an outstanding index to determine physical health status and the foundation of doing many exercise activities at various levels. Physical fitness has been defined as owning desirable bodily power to do daily occupational activities and appropriate physical activity. In the study carried out by Mikkelsson, it was concluded that the increase of muscular power, muscular endurance, and flexibility has positive effects on cardiovascular system, and it causes the decrease of muscular and skeletal damages. The results of this study confirmed the findings of the study by Zia'ie et al. and Sane'ie et al. who reported that creating and maintaining appropriate levels of physical fitness subsets are effective in decreasing anxiety and increasing quality of life even in the elderly. These findings were consistent to the studies of Takata  and Fakoorian et al. Due to inactivity and inappropriate nutritional diet, many people have unsuitable blood fat profile as shown in studies conducted in 1991 in two special clinics linked to Digital Medicine Scale of SECA Model 769 showed that among 6568 people referred for control cholesterol and TG analysis, 1532 individuals (23%) had cholesterol above 200 mg/deciliter and TG above 250 mg/deciliter (Shahgholian ). Therefore, there should be a revolutionary change in people's lifestyle, especially in their physical activities and exercise to keep them from hypercholesterolemia and consequently, cardiovascular disease. Alternatively, perhaps, following proper diet alongside exercise can lead to better results. The American Heart Association suggested that aside cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and high cholesterol, low physical activity is another risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which is changeable through altering in lifestyle, hence, it is recommended to corporate physical activities in the staff's teaching programs (Fletcher  and Williams ). Furthermore, some evidence from epidemiologic studies and exercise activities showed that the people, who have more activities, have higher HDL cholesterol and lower levels of cholesterol and TG compared to those with fewer activities (Kobayashi ). Furthermore, in a study involving the adults, Superko reported that exercise training programs which lasted more than 4 months caused positive change in blood lipid and lipoprotein level in many adults. Various studies have also reported low and light body activity among those who undertook physical exercise. Various studies have reported that soft and light physical activities  and resistance as well as aerobic sports are recommended as a multidimensional strategy to regulate fat. Lira et al. reported that resistance sports with low intensity have more effect on plasma fat compared to resistance sport with high intensity. Moreover, different studies have revealed that there are beneficial effects in physical activity on lipid profile in middle-aged adults and older ones, although it has been suggested that the energy should be higher at specific threshold. In this regard, Fonong  reported that the short-term trainings and consuming energy lower than 900 kilocalories/a week cannot affect HDL cholesterol level in old men and women.
Finally, it should be emphasized that taking part in programs to increase physical activity level and physical fitness seems necessary at the societal level. To control body fat, it is advised that men above the age of 35 and women above the age of 45 measure their blood cholesterol level regularly. Moreover, LDL level should be lower than 130 mg/deciliter, but in people with cardiovascular disease, it is better to have lower LDL level (<100 mg/deciliter).
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Elahi T, Ashtiani AF, Bigdeli E. The relationship between physical fitness and mental health in the staff of a martial university. J Sport Med 2012;14:192-9.
Shahgholian N. Investigating and Comparing Individual, Familial, Hygienic Behaviors and the Type of Drug used for the Rural and Urban People with Hyperlipidemia Refereeing to Therapy Centers of Medical Sciences of Shahrekord in 1983. MSC Thesis, University of Medication, Iran; 1983. p. 7.
Saneie, Amirtash, Tondnevis. Physical fitness and its relationship with digestion and mental health of faculty members at martial universities. Harkat Period 2004;22:19-45.
Ziaie V, Fallah J, Rezaie M, Baiat A. Relationship between body mass index and physical fitness in 513 students of medication, 79-84. J Dep Med Tehran Univ Med 2007;65:79-84.
Anbari S, Moghaddasi M, Torkfar A, Rahimi Zade E, Khademi Y. Investigating the effect of eight weeks of proposed model of public exercise on male staff's physical fitness and public health. Sci Res J Yasouj Univ Med 2012;17:40-9.
Fakoorian A, Azarbaijani MA, Piri M. The effect of a period of selected martial training on physical fitness, body mass index, mental health and mood of martial university students. Sci Stud J Univ Med Islam Repub Iran Army 2012;10:17-27.
Beebe LH, Tian L, Morris N, Goodwin A, Allen SS, Kuldau J, et al.
Effects of exercise on mental and physical health parameters of persons with schizophrenia. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2005;26:661-76.
Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, Blumenthal J, Caspersen C, Chaitman B, et al.
Statement on exercise: Benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans. A statement for health professionals by the committee on exercise and cardiac rehabilitation of the council on clinical cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation 1996;94:857-62.
Fonong T, Toth MJ, Ades PA, Katzel LI, Calles-Escandon J, Poehlman ET, et al.
Relationship between physical activity and HDL-cholesterol in healthy older men and women: A cross-sectional and exercise intervention study. Atherosclerosis 1996;127:177-83.
Kobayashi J, Murase Y, Asano A, Nohara A, Kawashiri MA, Inazu A, et al.
Effect of walking with a pedometer on serum lipid and adiponectin levels in Japanese middle-aged men. J Atheroscler Thromb 2006;13:197-201.
Lira FS, Yamashita AS, Uchida MC, Zanchi NE, Gualano B, Martins E Jr, et al.
Low and moderate, rather than high intensity strength exercise induces benefit regarding plasma lipid profile. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2010;2:31.
Ma J, Liu Z, Ling W. Physical activity, diet and cardiovascular disease risks in Chinese women. Public Health Nutr 2003;6:139-46.
Mann S, Beedie C, Jimenez A. Differential effects of aerobic exercise, resistance training and combined exercise modalities on cholesterol and the lipid profile: Review, synthesis and recommendations. Sports Med 2014;44:211-21.
Mikkelsson LO, Nupponen H, Kaprio J, Kautiainen H, Mikkelsson M, Kujala UM, et al.
Adolescent flexibility, endurance strength, and physical activity as predictors of adult tension neck, low back pain, and knee injury: A 25 year follow up study. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:107-13.
Miyatake N, Matsumoto S, Nishikawa H, Numata T. Relationship between body composition changes and the blood pressure response to exercise test in overweight Japanese subjects. Acta Med Okayama 2007;61:1-7.
Napradit P, Pantaewan P. Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics of royal Thai army personnel. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92 Suppl 1:S16-21.
Ohta T, Kawamura T, Hatano K, Yokoi M, Uozumi Z, Okamoto N, et al.
Effects of exercise on coronary risk factors in obese, middle-aged subjects. Jpn Circ J 1990;54:1459-64.
Poormokhtar R, Hosseinchari M. Comparison of mental health in Sport and Unsport students of Shiraz University. 4th
National Seminar of Students Mental Health Papers Collection; 2008.
Ring-Dimitriou S, von Duvillard SP, Paulweber B, Stadlmann M, Lemura LM, Peak K, et al.
Nine months aerobic fitness induced changes on blood lipids and lipoproteins in untrained subjects versus controls. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007;99:291-9.
Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Castillo R, Martín-Matillas M, Kwak L, Vicente-Rodríguez G, et al.
Physical activity, fitness, weight status, and cognitive performance in adolescents. J Pediatr 2010;157:917-220.
Superko HR. Exercise training, serum lipids, and lipoprotein particles: Is there a change threshold? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991;23:677-85.
Takata Y, Ansai T, Soh I, Awano S, Yoshitake Y, Kimura Y, et al.
Quality of life and physical fitness in an 85-year-old population. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2010;50:272-6.
Scheers T, Philippaerts R, Van Langendonck L, Duquet W, Duvigneaud N, Matton L, et al.
Lipid profile in men and women with different levels of sports participation and physical activity. Public Health Nutr 2008;11:1098-106.
Williams CL, Hayman LL, Daniels SR, Robinson TN, Steinberger J, Paridon S, et al.
Cardiovascular health in childhood: A statement for health professionals from the Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young (AHOY) of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation 2002;106:143-60.
Ziaee V, Kordi R, Halabchi F, Ghebleh Zadeh M, Keshtidar M. Can we promote physical fitness among medical students by educational program? J Med Sci 2004;4:300-6.
Mojtaba Babaei Khorzoghi
Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11]
[Table 1], [Table 2]