|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 1681-1685
|The relationship between job satisfaction and social support for employees with chronic fatigue
Mohammadreza Pirmoradi1, Naser Foroghinejad2, Fariba Asadi Bedmeshki3
1 Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Center of Excellence in Psychology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tonekaboon, Iran
3 Department of Psychology of Sobhe Sadegh Center, Tehran, Iran
Click here for correspondence address and email
|Date of Web Publication||11-Jan-2018|
| Abstract|| |
Objective: Chronic fatigue as a permanent and debilitating disorder causes weakness in personal, social, and professional life of a person. Thus researchers pay the necessary attention to it, and hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and social support for employees of Ahvaz Water and Sewage with chronic fatigue. Methods: This research was descriptive of correlational type. The statistical society of this study consists of all staffs of Ahvaz Water and Sewage who were working in 2015. The statistical sample consisted of 190 employees who were selected randomly. To collect data, we used Ironson's job satisfaction scale, Chalder's fatigue scale, and Phillip's social support audit. The gained data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistical method such as Pearson's correlation multivariate regression analysis and through software SPSS 20. Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and social support for employees with chronic fatigue (P ≤ 0.001). Regression analysis showed that job satisfaction and social support can predict chronic fatigue significantly. Conclusion: The results showed that job satisfaction and social support reduce chronic fatigue in employees of Ahvaz Water and Sewage.
Keywords: Chronic fatigue, job satisfaction, social support
|How to cite this article:|
Pirmoradi M, Foroghinejad N, Bedmeshki FA. The relationship between job satisfaction and social support for employees with chronic fatigue. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1681-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Pirmoradi M, Foroghinejad N, Bedmeshki FA. The relationship between job satisfaction and social support for employees with chronic fatigue. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Aug 15];10:1681-5. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/6/1681/222696
| Introduction|| |
Social support means having a sense of belonging, acceptance, interest, love, and be loved. It may create a peaceful connection in which a sense of security, intimacy, and nearness are fundamental characteristics. Furthermore, social support is a part of social exchanges factor. In patients who had more social support, the feelings of uncertainty are less. Social support protects persons against stresses caused by the disease and increases their social psychological adjustment.
High levels of social support cause a person to experience a sense of gratitude. Studies have shown that persons with high social support and low interpersonal conflicts have persisted more in the face of life pressures. Furthermore, studies have shown that the reduction in the social support level is associated with the increase of frequency of hospitalization in chronic diseases., Job satisfaction includes satisfaction of external factors such as environment, working conditions, and job characteristics and also internal factors such as employee's need, motivations, and personality. In fact, job satisfaction is employee's job expectations which are met. Parker  was more specific by stating that situation, individual, and interaction between situation and individual are three factors of job satisfaction.
Fatigue is a disorder which is defined as a feeling of weakness and exhaustion, loss of physical strength, frailty and faintness, lack of energy, disability, inability to maintain activity, causing drowsiness, blurred consciousness, poor concentration, inadequacy, and loss of motivation. Fatigue syndrome has a prevalence rate of 15% in a clinical population that reduced the quality of life in addition to psychological and physical disturbances.
Prevalence of this syndrome is more in women, the elderly, and people in low socioeconomic situation. The long-term health problems, higher scores on the hospital Anxiety Scale, and poor quality of life are associated with increasing risk of chronic fatigue and negative consequences significantly. Feeling of fatigue and intolerance of daily activities reduces individual's physical function. Ameringer et al. and Dampier et al. showed that fatigue is a predictor pain factor in some patients and can lead to decrease their life quality level.
Due to the chronic fatigue effect on the personal, social, and professional function of a person, the aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between social support and job satisfaction for employees of Ahvaz Water and Sewage with chronic fatigue.
| Methods|| |
This is a descriptive study of correlation type. The statistical sample included all employees of Ahvaz city's Water and Sewage Company who were working in 2015. The sample consisted of 190 employees who were selected randomly. To collect data, we used Chalder's fatigue scale, Ironson's job satisfaction scale, and Phillip's social support adult. The gained data were analyzed with using descriptive statistics method such as Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis through SPSS 20 software (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.).
Chalder's fatigue scale
Chalder et al. devised a short tool with 14 points of physical and mental of fatigue symptoms that are thought to mark the index of chronic fatigue syndrome and evaluated it. For the first time, it was translated, and its reliability and validity was evaluated by Nasri. This questionnaire is a self-evaluation tool and a person was evaluated for physical fatigue with eight items based on a 4-point scale from no (zero) to high  and for mental fatigue with six questions. Furthermore, four structures have been identified using this scale: (1) cognitive problems, (2) drowsiness, (3) endurance and strength, and (4) lack of motivation and interest. Chalder et al. have investigated the validity and reliability of this scale in the medical care sector.
According to Chalder et al., internal consistency coefficient for the whole scale, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue was reported to be 0.89, 0.84, and 0.82, respectively. Nasri  in his study reported the reliability of this scale using Cronbach's alpha method in a sample of students (60 subjects) and nurses (34 subjects) to be 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. Furthermore, split-half reliability coefficient in the students' group was 0.83. This coefficient showed the high reliability of the scale. He also achieved retest reliability coefficient on a sample of 50 students after 3 weeks they were retested. Coefficients for total Chalder's fatigue scale, physical fatigue subscales, and mental fatigue subscale are reported to be 0.85, 0.81, and 0.74, respectively, which were satisfactory. Furthermore, Chalder et al. reported that the validity factor for this scale using a cutoff point of score 22 and using the clinical interview in medical care was 5/75% (sensitivity) and 5.74% (specificity).
Job satisfaction scale
This scale was developed by Ironson et al. This scale has 18 items which were translated for the first time by Nasrin  and its reliability and validity have been identified. In this questionnaire, the subject should read any item which is pleasant or unpleasant due to his/her job and identify the answer in the form of three options yes, no, and do not know. Items do not refer to funds or fields of work in overall job satisfaction scale. Ironson et al. reported a Cronbach's alpha consistency of 0.91 on a sample (n = 1149) and between 0.91 and 0.95 in the other sample (n = 3569). Nasrin  reported the reliability of this scale using Cronbach's alpha and split-half to be 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. Ironson et al., reported that the correlation between this scale and job satisfaction based on Brayfield Rothe's five item was 0.80. Nasrin  used a single-item version in his study for determining the validity of the scale. A 7-item scale from 1 (low) to 7 (very high) was used for answering the questions and the obtained correlation coefficient is 0.69. Furthermore, he reported that the validity of the scale through the correlation between this scale and job satisfaction with a Brayfield Rothe's 5-item scale was 0.70.
Phillip's social support questionnaire
Social support questionnaire is provided by Vaux et al. This scale has 23 items, with 4 grading as very positive, positive, negative, or very negative. In the Soghra study  which was conducted on 100 university students and 200 students. The test reliability of university students' sample in the whole scale was 90% in the student sample was 70%, and in the test, retest of students after 6 weeks was 81%. The coefficient of an internal reliability test in a group of 300 students of Allameh Tabatabai University was calculated as 66% by Bakhsh.
| Results|| |
The subjects consisted of 190 staff of Ahwaz Water and Sewage aged 25–60, with most of the data relating to people aged 31–37 (n = 72). In regard to gender, 78% were male and 22% were female. Nearly 82% of subjects were married, and 18% were single, and in terms of education, most of them were master (50%), 57% of them were employed, and 27% of them had 21–30 years' work experience.
[Table 1] presents the results of descriptive variables:
Due to one of the assumptions of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test which is normality, all of the obtained significant levels were >0.05 [Table 2], and this indicates that normal distribution assumption is not rejected. Parametric tests are used for evaluating these data.
These statistical findings show that the mean social and standard deviation of social support, job satisfaction, and chronic fatigue are ([16.25] [3.5]), ([23.8] [9.16]), and ([11.9] [7.65]), respectively.
To evaluate the negative and contrasting relationship between staff satisfaction and chronic fatigue, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results are summarized in [Table 3].
Statistical results given in [Table 3] show that observed Pearson (r = 0.441) with (P = 0.002 ≤ 0.01) is statistically significant. Due to the negative correlation coefficient, it can be said that there is a negative and reverse relationship with staff, job satisfaction, and chronic fatigue. To evaluate negative and reverse relationship between social support and chronic fatigue, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used, and the results are summarized in [Table 4].
Statistical results of [Table 4] show that observed Pearson (r = 0.225) with (P = 0.001 ≤0.01) is significant. Due to the negative correlation coefficient, it can be said there is a negative and reverse relationship between staff social support and chronic fatigue.
To evaluate the relationship between life chronic fatigue and the simultaneous effect of staff job satisfaction and social support variables, multiple regression test was used. The results of this evaluation are in [Table 5].
|Table 5: Multiple regression analysis-based entry model due to predictive variables (job satisfaction and social support variables) and chronic fatigue criteria variable (n=190)|
Click here to view
These statistical findings show that multiple correlation coefficients for the combinations of job satisfaction and social support variables are equal to MR = 0.538 and RS = 0.289, respectively, and F regression equation (25.258) with P = 0.001 ≤001 is significant. Due to the ß-coefficient results of [Table 5] and significant level, all of the variables affect chronic fatigue variable as predict variable which in order of importance from highest to lowest impact include:
Job satisfaction (ß = −0.405), social support (ß = −0.237), thus Hypothesis 3 is approved.
| Discussion|| |
According to the study findings, it can be said there is a significant relationship between social support and job satisfaction for employees with chronic fatigue. These results were confirmed by the findings of Jansen et al. about the effects of occupational noise on employees fatigue during work and also by the findings of of Van Hook which examines the quality of life, chronic fatigue, life satisfaction and burnout in staff of child support agency. The results determined that women with chronic fatigue showed lower quality of life and lower life satisfaction than men and also quality of life and life satisfaction showed negative significant correlation with chronic fatigue and exhaustion and is consistent with the findings of Fazel Asgarpoor et al. who showed that fatigue leads to decrease self.care activities and reduces the role of the individual's ability to perform daily living activities.
Furthermore, our results are consistent with the findings of Chi Ti and Ue Lin  in a study among nurses which showed a significant relationship between family functioning and chronic fatigue with quality of life; the findings of Barrett-Lee et al. who showed in patients with cancer the fatigue-related anemia effect on social interactions and interpersonal relationships, leading to social isolation; the finding of Corwin and Arbour  about the effect of fatigue on physical and mental health, daily activities, motivation, and social interaction in mothers; and the research of Neda et al. about the factors intervened with fatigue in theory of unpleasant symptoms in patients treated with hemodialysis in dialysis centers in Kerman, which showed that the results showed that there is a significant relationship between fatigue and social support; and finally the studies of Ameringer et al. and Dampier et al. who showed the fatigue was a predictor of pain in some patients and may lead to lower quality of life in them.
In explaining the results, we can say that the structure of fatigue has multidimensional causes and consists of constant subjective feelings of fatigue, weakness, and lack of energy that lead to reducing the performance capacity. Due to fatigue feeling, a person without previous energy and low activity requires more effort to minimize daily activities.
| Conclusion|| |
To discriminate the mentioned results, we conclude that job satisfaction and social support reduce chronic fatigue in employees.
Limitations and recommendations
The study sample is mixed and it ignores gender role so we recommend that for future research, study sample should be based on sex. This study was limited to a specific city and it is not possible to extend the results to other cities; for this reason it is recommended that additional studies be done in other cities.
Hereby, the authors express gratitude to all of Ahvaz Water and Sewage staffs, especially the participants who took part in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Aticnson R, Atkinson RS, Hilgard A. Introduction of Psychology. 1st
ed., Vol. 1. Translated by Baraheni MT. Tehran: Roshd; 2006. p. 186-205.
Chan KW. Wyatt TA. Quality of life: A study of employee in Shanghai, China. Asia Pac Bus Rev 2007;13:501-17.
Sajjadi M, Rassouli M, Bahri N, Mohammadipoor F. The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran. Indian J Palliat Care 2015;21:231-5.
] [Full text]
Rambod M, Rafii F. Perceived social support in hemodialysis patients. Iran J Nurs 2009;22:99-110.
Wood AM, Joseph S, Maltby J. Gratitude uniquely predicts satisfaction with life: Incremental validity above the domains and facets of the five factor model. Pers Individ Dif 2008;45:49-54.
Jalilian M, Mostafavi F, Sharifirad G. Association between self-efficacy, perceived social support and quality of life in patients with cardio vascular diseases: A cross-sectional study. J Health Syst Res 2013;9:531-9.
Lett HS, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Strauman TJ, Robins C, Sherwood A, et al.
Social support and coronary heart disease: Epidemiologic evidence and implications for treatment. Psychosom Med 2005;67:869-78.
Sorensen EA, Wang F. Social support, depression, functional status, and gender differences in older adults undergoing first-time coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Heart Lung 2009;38:306-17.
Tanriverdi H. Worker's job satisfaction and organizational commitment: Mediator variable relationships of organizational commitment factors. J Am Acad Bus 2008;14:152-63.
Hwang IS, Kuo JH. Effects of job satisfaction and perceived alternative employment opportunities on turnover intention-an examination of public sector organizations. J Am Acad Bus 2006;8:245-59.
Parker SK. Job satisfaction. In: Rogelberg SG, editor. Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage; 2007. p. 406-10.
Iop A, Manfredi AM, Bonura S. Fatigue in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: An analysis of published studies. Ann Oncol 2004;15:7120720.
Jason LA, Porter N, Hunnell J, Rademaker A, Richman JA. CFS prevalence and risk factors over time. J Health Psychol 2011;16:445-56.
Wong WS, Fielding R. Prevalence of chronic fatigue among Chinese adults in Hong Kong: A population-based study. J Affect Disord 2010;127:248-56.
Gary R. Morrow cancer- related fatigue: Causes, consequences, and management. Oncologist 2007;12:1-3.
Ameringer S, Elswick RK Jr. Smith W. Fatigue in adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease: Biological and behavioral correlates and health-related quality of life. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 2014;31:6-17.
Dampier C, LeBeau P, Rhee S, Lieff S, Kesler K, Ballas S, et al.
Health-related quality of life in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD): A report from the comprehensive sickle cell centers clinical trial consortium. Am J Hematol 2011;86:203-5.
Chalder T, Berelowitz G, Pawlikowska T, Watts L, Wessely S, Wright D, et al.
Development of a fatigue scale. J Psychosom Res 1993;37:147-53.
Sadegh N. Epidemiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Treatment. Ph.D Thesis, Ahvaz Faculty of Education and Psychology. Shahid Chamran University; 2003.
Ironson GH, Smith PC, Brannick MT, Gibson WM, Paul KB. Construction of a job in general scale: A comparison of global, composite, and specific measures. J Appl Psychol 1989;74:193-200.
Nasrin A. Design and Test a Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Job Motivation and Staff of National South Oil Company. Ahvaz, PhD Thesis, Shahid Chamran University; 2007.
Vaux A, Phillips J, Holley L, Thompson B, Williams D, Stewart D. The Social Support Appraisals (SSA) scale: Studies of reliability and validity, Am J Community Psychol 1986;14:195-219.
Faheme T. The Relationship between Social Support, Coping Styles and Resiliency in the Juvenile Institution Adolescents and Normal Adolescents. Master's Degree Thesis in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University Allameh Tabatabai; 2010.
Ebrahimi Gavam S., The validity of the three concepts of locus of control, self-esteem and social support, M.degree thesis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University 1992;24-6.
Bakhsh S. Afshin Investigate the Relationship Between Perfectionism Dimensional, Social Support and Educational Burnout in Allameh Tabatabai University Students with High and Low Levels of Educational Depression, Master's Thesis, Field of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaei University; 2010.
Jansen NW, van Amelsvoort LG, Kristensen TS, van den Brandt PA, Kant IJ. Work schedules and fatigue: A prospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med 2003;60 Suppl 1:i47-53.
Van Hook MP. Quality of Life and Compassion Satisfaction/Fatigue and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Study of the Child Welfare Workers in Community Based Care Organizations in Central Florida. University of Central Florida, NACSW Convention Ventegods, (1995). Quality of Life in Denmark; Results from a Population Survey. Co-Penhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag; 2008.
Fazel Asgarpoor A, Amini Z, Zeraati A, Esmaeli H. The effect of a care plan based on the Roy Adaptation Model on level of Fatigue in hemodialysis patients. Evid Based Care 2011;1:77-89.
Chi Ti C, Ue Lin C. An exploration of quality of life and related factors among female flight attendants. J Nurs Res 2009;17:212-20.
Barrett-Lee P, Bokemeyer C, Gascón P, Nortier JW, Schneider M, Schrijvers D, et al.
Management of cancer-related anemia in patients with breast or gynecologic cancer: New insights based on results from the European cancer anemia survey. Oncologist 2005;10:743-57.
Corwin EJ, Arbour M. Postpartum fatigue and evidence-based interventions. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2007;32:215-20.
Neda A, Zahra R, Abas AZ. 2014, examining factors associated with fatigue unpleasant symptoms theory in patients undergoing hemodialysis in dialysis centers in Kerman. J Fac Nurs Univ Med Sci 2014:11:119-26.
Adamsen L, Midtgaard J, Andersen C, Quist M, Moeller T, Roerth M, et al.
Transforming the nature of fatigue through exercise: Qualitative findings from a multidimensional exercise programme in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2004;13:362-70.
Aghababaeian H, Taheri N, Araghi Ahvazi L, Sadeghi Moghaddam A. Fundamental of Triage. 1st
ed. Tehran: Jameenegar Publication; 2012.
Department of Mental Health, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Center of Excellence in Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]
| Article Access Statistics|
| Viewed||517 |
| Printed||7 |
| Emailed||0 |
| PDF Downloaded||8 |
| Comments ||[Add] |