Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

LETTER TO EDITOR
Year
: 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 743--744

Taking major strides in dengue vaccine research: World health organization


Saurabh R Shrivastava, Prateek S Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy 
 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Saurabh R Shrivastava
Third Floor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai village, Thiruporur: Guduvancherry Main Road, Sembakkam Post, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu
India




How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Taking major strides in dengue vaccine research: World health organization.Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:743-744


How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Taking major strides in dengue vaccine research: World health organization. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Aug 25 ];10:743-744
Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/743/188500


Full Text



Dear Editor,

Dengue has been acknowledged as a major public health concern owing to a significant rise in the incidence of cases across the world in the last couple of decades.[1] Despite the number of cases being underreported or misclassified, the annual global incidence is close to 400 million, of which 25% of the cases present with a severe form of the disease.[1] Further, around 4 billion people are at the risk of acquiring the infection across endemic nations, and this is a huge estimate, not only with regard to the expected rise in the number of cases in the future, but also due to the extensive burden it poses on the health system and morbidities/mortalities associated with the disease.[1],[2]

From the prevention and control perspective, the caseload of disease has been reduced to some extent by strengthening of the epidemiological surveillance and vector control measures.[2] However, in the absence of any specific therapeutic intervention, deployment of an effective vaccine remains as one of the key interventions to meet the expectations of the public health authorities and the scientific communities.[2],[3] In-fact, it has been anticipated that with the help of a well tolerated and costeffective vaccine against all the four serotypes, the ultimate goal of reduction in morbidity by 25% and in mortality by 50% can be accomplished by the end of 2020.[1],[2]

Even though, the development of a vaccine is the need of the hour, the path to achieve the same has many challenges like infection by one of the serotype offers protection against the same serotype and minimal protection against the other serotypes.[1],[3],[4] However, subsequent infection with another serotype enhances the severity of the disease, owing to which the proposed vaccine should offer protection against all four serotypes.[1],[3] In addition, factors like the absence of an adequate animal disease model and issues pertaining to the extent of protection offered have also made the pathway of development of vaccine difficult.[1],[3]

However, despite the presence of these challenges, the vaccine development activities have made significant progress in recent years, and for that matter, the first dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) has been registered in Mexico in late 2015.[1],[5]

It is a live tetravalent vaccine, and has been recommended for use among people (9-45 years age-group) living in an endemic region, as a three-dose series on a 0/6/12 month schedule.[3],[5] In-fact, based on the results obtained in phase 3 clinical trials the vaccine has been advocated by the World Health Organization.[1],[4]

Simultaneously, there is a great need to ascertain the gaps in knowledge and research pertaining to the development, evaluation, and implementation of vaccines; build scientific consensus; assess the evidence regarding the introduction and use of vaccines; and develop guidelines for the implementation of the vaccines in health care settings.[1],[2] However, the introduction of the vaccine should not substitute the existing surveillance, vector control, and involvement of the community.[2]

To conclude, dengue has gained global attention due to the sharp rise in the number of cases and there is a great need to urgently deploy a well tolerated and effective vaccine to contain the problem efficiently

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

S.R.S. contributed in the conception or design of the work, drafting of the work, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work

P.S.S. contributed in the literature review, revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work

J.R. contributed in revising the draft, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare

References

1World Health Organization. Dengue vaccine research; 2016. Available from: http://who.int/immunization/research/development/dengue_vaccines/en/. [Last accessed on 2016 Apr 19].
2World Health Organization. Global Strategy for dengue prevention control 2012–2020. 2012 Geneva WHO press 1-14.
3Wilder-Smith A, Yoon IK. Edging closer towards the goal of a dengue vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines2016;15:433-5.
4Chew CH, Goh PP, Lim TO. Dengue vaccine in regions of endemic disease. N Engl J Med 2016;374:1388.
5Hernández-Ávila M, Lazcano-Ponce E, Hernández-Ávila JE, Alpuche-Aranda CM, Rodríguez-López MH, García-García L. Analysis of the evidence on the efficacy and safety of CYD-TDV dengue vaccine and its potential licensing and implementation through Mexico's Universal Vaccination Program. Salud Publica Mex 2016;58:71-83.