Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

LETTER TO EDITOR
Year
: 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 772--773

Medical malacology and medical ichthyology survey: Can explain the situation of opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma in the endemic area or not? A comment from Thailand


Viroj Wiwanitkit 
 Suvannhabhumi Clinical Training, Research and Development Center, Institute of Natural Medicine Science Development and Establishment Project, Surindra Rajabhat University, Surin Province, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok
Thailand




How to cite this article:
Wiwanitkit V. Medical malacology and medical ichthyology survey: Can explain the situation of opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma in the endemic area or not? A comment from Thailand.Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:772-773


How to cite this URL:
Wiwanitkit V. Medical malacology and medical ichthyology survey: Can explain the situation of opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma in the endemic area or not? A comment from Thailand. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 22 ];10:772-773
Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/772/213155


Full Text



Dear Editor,

Liver fluke infestation or Opisthorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma, its late complication, are important tropical diseases with a very high prevalence in Indochina.[1] In Thailand, a tropical country in Southeast Asia, an extremely high prevalence is seen in northeastern region. An interesting concern is on the intermediate host that is snail and fresh water fish in Thailand.[1],[2] There are many medical malacology and medical ichthyology surveys on intermediate hosts. However, the interpretation of these surveys, for the present situation of Opisthorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma, still remains a question. Here, the author has tried to make a link between the available data from medical malacology and medical ichthyology survey in Thailand, and the epidemiological situations in 4 different regions of Thailand (northern, central, northeastern and southern regions). This interrelationship is presented in [Table 1]. It can be seen that the data, on the abundance and metacercariae contamination from medical malacology and medical ichthyology survey, is not concordant with actual epidemiological data of Opishorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma. While the problematic snails and contamination of metacercariae can be observed in all regions; there is a difference in the prevalence pattern of Opisthorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma in different regions of Thailand. In the endemic region, the discordance between an observed contamination of metacercariae in fishes and snails, as well as the prevalence of Opisthorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma, can be observed.[3],[4] In fact, Opishorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma is a food-borne infectious disease. Therefore, the data from medical malacology and medical ichthyology survey should be useful in disease control. However, it should be noted for at least two facts:{Table 1}

Food cooking and food intake habits are culture related behavior and;The dynamics and migration of local people can be seen; whereas there are significant less movement of problematic snails and fresh water fishes.

Finally, it is still a question whether medical malacology and medical ichthyology survey can explain the situation of Opisthorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma in the endemic area or not? And if not, is it still useful and cost effective for such surveys?

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Sripa B, Pairojkul C. Cholangiocarcinoma: Lessons from Thailand. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2008;24:349-56.
2Wiwanitkit V, Cholangiocarcinoma and Opisthorchiasis in Northeast Thailand: Raw fish intake may not be the sole cause. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2015;48:365.
3Nithiuthai S, Suwansaksri J, Wiwanitkit V, Chaengphukeaw P. A survey of metacercariae in cyprinoid fish in Nakhon Ratchasima, northeast Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002;33: (Suppl 3) 103-5.
4Nithiuthai S, Wiwanitkit V, Suwansaksri J, Chaengphukeaw P. A survey of trematodecercariae in Bithynia goniomphalos in northeast Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002;33: (Suppl 3) 106-9.