Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

: 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1840--1841

Cutaneous leishmaniasis situation at present and the way of ahead

Ali Mehrabi Tavana 
 Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Ali Mehrabi Tavana
Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

How to cite this article:
Tavana AM. Cutaneous leishmaniasis situation at present and the way of ahead.Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1840-1841

How to cite this URL:
Tavana AM. Cutaneous leishmaniasis situation at present and the way of ahead. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Feb 25 ];10:1840-1841
Available from:

Full Text

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as an important public health concern in many parts of the world (Africa, Indian subcontinent, eastern and southern west of Asia).[1] The leishmaniasis is present in at least 98 countries and territories, with 1.2 million new cases per year, making it a worldwide concern.[2] There are three forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Among these, cutaneous leishmaniasis is more prevalent, particularly, in the tropical and semitropical parts of the world.[3] The disease could be transmitted to human via different female sand flies, particularly Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti.[4] Depending on the area and location, different animals are sources of infection, particularly dogs and rodents.[5],[6] Human-to-human transmission via female blood sucking is also possible. The disease has ancient history and different Islamic and Iranian physicians like Avicenna (described in the 10th century AD) have mentioned that in their books.[7] Many researches have been focused in different aspects of the disease, particularly preparation of vaccine like KLM (kill leishmaniasis vaccine),[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] vector control,[15],[16] and treatment.[17]

Unfortunately, it should be emphasized that there is no good news from all researches for public yet. There is no effective candidate vaccine in spite of many works in different countries under supervision of WHO, and vector is very hard and costly and there is no 100% effective medicine for the patients at present. Still much works needs to be done and problems overcome. However, leishmanization (use of alive parasite under standard preparation) is only way used in different infected countries in order to control the infection. In our study, the program was effective nearly 86%.[18],[19],[20] Its standard preparation needs to be improved to possibly increase its effective percentage too. It is good for international health organization to support the program at present time while other control measures become available.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


1World Health Organization. Leishmaniasis: background information. A brief history of the disease. 2009. Available at: [Last accessed on 2016 Sep 01].
2Handler MZ, Patel PA, Kapila R, Al-Qubati Y, Schwartz RA. Cutaneous mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: clinical perspectives. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015;73:897-8. quiz 909-10. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2014.08.051.
3World Health Organization. Control of the leishmaniasis. Report of a Meeting of the WHO Export Committee on the Control of Leishmaniasis, WHO Technical Report Series 949. Geneva; 2010.
4Aghae Afshar A, Rassi Y, Sharifi I, Abai MR, Oshaghi MA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR. Susceptibility status of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae) to DDT and deltamethrin in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis after earthquake strike in Bam, Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 2011;5:32-41.
5Baneth G, Nachum-Biala Y, Shabat Simon M, Brenner O, Gaier S, Rojas A, Yasur-Landau D. Leishmania major infection in a dog with cutaneous manifestations. Parasit Vectors 2016;9:246- doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1541-2.
6Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Marvi-Moghadam N, Jafari R, Akhavan AA, Solimani H, Zahrai-Ramazani AR. Some epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new focus, central Iran. Dermatol Res Pract 2015 2015;286408- doi:10.1155/2015/286408.
7Bray RS. Note on the history of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean and Middle East area. Parassitologia 1987;29:175-9.
8Arjmand R, Fard SS, Saberi S, Tolouei S, Khamesipour A, Hejazi SH. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Adv Biomed Res 2015;4:128- doi:10.4103/2277-9175.158068.
9Khamesipour A, Dowlati Y, Asilian A, Hashemi-Fesharki R, Javadi A, Noazin S. Leishmanization: use of an old method for evaluation of candidate vaccines against Leishmaniasis. Vaccine 2005;23:3642-8.
10Khamesipour A, Rafati S, Davoudi N, Mahboudi F, Modabber F. Leishmaniasis vaccine candidates for development: global overview. Indian J Med Res 2006;123:423-38.
11Mahmoodi M, Khamesipour A, Dowlati Y, Rafati S, Momeni A, Emamjomehi M. Immune response measured in human volunteers vaccinated with autoclaved leishmania major vaccine mixed with low dose of BCG. Clin Exp Immunol 2003;134:303-8.
12Palatnik-de-Sousa CB. Vaccines for leishmaniasis in the fore coming 25 years. Vaccine 2008;26:1709-24. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.01.023. Epub 2008 Jan 30. Review. PubMed PMID: 18295939.
13Shama U, Singh S. Immunobiology of leishmaniasis. Indian J Exp Bio 2009;47:412-23.
14Fesharki RH, Agha SA, Ahourai P, Djavadian E, Taghavi A, Golabi A. Vaccine preparation and quality control of killed leishmania major. Arch Inst Razi 1992;43:39-50.
15Nadim A, Motabar M, Houshmand B, Keyghobadi K, Aflatoonian MR. Evaluation of pyrethroid impregnated bednets for control of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam (Islamic Republic of Iran). World Health Organization/Leish/95.37. Geneva; 1995.
16Rassi Y, Abai MR, Javadian E, Rafizadeh S, Imamian H, Mohebali M. Molecular data on vectors and reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Iran. Bull Soc Path Exot 2008;101:425-28.
17Copeland NK, Aronson NE. Leishmaniasis: treatment updates and clinical practice guidelines review. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2015;28:426-37. doi:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000194
18Tavana AM, Mohebali M, Javadian E, Esfahani AA, Hajjaran H. Leishmanization in small white mice. J Med Sci 2006;6:253-56. doi:10.3923/jms.2006.253.256.
19Nadim A, Javadian E. Leishmanization in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In: Walton B, Wijeyravetne PM, Modabber F, editors. Research on control strategies for the leishmaniasis. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre; 1998. pp. 336-39.
20Tavana AM. Why cutaneous leishmaniasis could not be prevented completely? An open discussion. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2011;4:52-3.