Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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   2008| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 5, 2009

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Effects of climate on the cholera outbreak in Iran during seven years (2000-2006)
Ali Mehrabi Tavana, Zahra Fallah, Syed Mohsen Zahraee, Hossien Massomi Asl, Mohammad Rahbar, Mohram Mafi, Nemotallh Esmi
July-December 2008, 1(2):43-46
Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to many scientists including microbiologists, clinicians, and epidemiologists. In this study, cholera outbreak during seven years (2000-2006) and climate factors were investigated. This study showed that there is a strong link between cholera outbreak and climate factors. When the temperature was <21.5C the outbreak started and when the temperature raised at 42C, the outbreak finished. However, the percentage of humidity had the same effect when it was 14% the outbreak begun and when it raised to 89% the outbreak finished too. In addition, the rate of rainfall also effected (i.e., when the minimum rainfall was 34.4 mm, the outbreak occurred and maximum rainfall raised to 567.9 mm the outbreak continued too.
  1 4,156 71
Parasitic pancreatitis
Sanjeev Verma, Dinesh Srivastava, Pushpa Yadav, SC Sharma
July-December 2008, 1(2):64-65
Ascariasis is the most frequent helminthic infection in humans in many developing countries. Aute pancreatitis is among the rarer causes of ascaris infestation. We report a case of acute pancreatitis, in a young man and present computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdomen, with roundworm infection.
  - 5,470 36
Disseminated cysticercus involving the vocal cords
MA Hashmi, SK Sharma, SP Bera, Bibhuti Saha
July-December 2008, 1(2):66-67
Cysticercosis is a larval form of human infection by taenia solium. It develops in subcutaneous tissues, muscles, visceras, and most importantly as brain and eye infections. In developing countries, it is the leading cause of fits. The involvement of vocal cords is a rare finding.
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Isolated gonadotropin deficiency associated with empty sella
Mukta N Chowta, Nithyananda K Chowta
July-December 2008, 1(2):68-69
Empty sella syndrome may be associated with abnormal pituitary function. Low levels of growth hormone (GH) are most common, but other pituitary hormones may also be deficient. Case Report : The patient was a 30-year-old male who presented with complaints of failure to attain puberty, break in voice, gynecomastia, marfanoid features, under developed genitalia, and testicular atrophy. He had eunuchoid body proportions with a height of 177 cm, an arm span of 183 cm, a lower segment of 101 cm, and a sitting height of 79 cm. There was no anosmia or midline defects. A computed tomography scan showed empty sella turcica. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a hypoplastic pituitary within empty sella turcica and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection surrounding the gland. His laboratory investigations showed low luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels. The patient was treated with testosterone replacement and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). His condition improved after therapy except for persisting azoospermia. Conclusion: Uncommon presentation of isolated gonadotropin deficiency leading to delayed puberty due to pituitary cause.
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Human demodicidosis
Mahboob Hasan, Farhan Asif Siddiqui, Mohammed Naim
July-December 2008, 1(2):70-71
The role of demodex mites in the pathogenesis of skin disorders in humans is still debated in contrast to their well known role as causative agents of various diseases in veterinary medicine. The authors here take the opportunity to report a case of demodicidosis in a 28-year-old male.
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An elderly lady with non specific symptoms
TS Chandrasekar, Rajesh P Prabhu, V Jayanthi
July-December 2008, 1(2):72-72
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The status of safe drinking water and sanitation in Batabaria, Comilla, Bangladesh
Mohammad Robed Amin, Wakil Ahmed, Mir Kashem
July-December 2008, 1(2):47-51
Background: In a developing country like Bangladesh, people are constantly battling different diseases most of which are caused by a lack of clean drinking water and sanitation. Improved hygiene (hand washing and safe water use) and sanitation (sanitary latrine) are also essential for reducing cases of diarrhea, parasitic infestation, morbidity, and mortality. A field study was carried out in the village of Batabaria in Comilla to identify the status of safe drinking water and sanitation. Materials and Methods: The village of Batabaria under Comilla Sadar was selected for data collection. Data was collected by using the direct observation method, a sample questionnaire, and discussions with key informants. Thirty houses were chosen from the village. A total of 158 respondents were interviewed to gather information for the study. Results: The average family size was 5.26, which is more or less the same average of Comilla, however, it is a little lower than the national average of 5.6. Most of the family members were students (40.5%) and housewives (22.78%). Thirty percent of the respondents live below the poverty line while the national average is 47%. The percentage of respondents engaged in agricultural work is 11.2%, which is far lower than our national percentage of 53%. All of the households use tube wells for drinking and domestic purposes, presumed to be arsenic free. A total of 98% use sanitary latrines. Among the respondents, 76% wash their hands before meals and after defecation. Conclusion: A comprehensive village development plan should be carried out in every village in Bangladesh to improve the standard of safe water use and sanitation.
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Acute renal failure and other clinical features in tetanus patients from northeastern Brazil
Francisco Jose R Moura Filho, Patricia R Mendonca, Erica B Lima, Jose Maria S Silva, Marcos L.M Pinho, Rosa M.S Mota, Geraldo B Silva, Elizabeth F Daher
July-December 2008, 1(2):52-55
Context: Tetanus is a disease caused by Clostridium tetani . Acute renal failure (ARF) can occur in patients with tetanus and a number of mechanisms may contribute to this, including rhabdomyolysis and autonomic nervous system overactivity. Aims: To investigate the occurrence of ARF and other clinical features in patients with tetanus in Brazil. Settings and Design: Retrospective study of patients with tetanus admitted to Sao Jose Infectious Diseases Hospital, in Fortaleza City, Brazil. Materials and Methods: All patients admitted from January 1999 to December 2003 were included, except those with previously diagnosed renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosous, or any other factors not associated with tetanus that could lead to renal dysfunction. We compared survivors with non survivor patients in order to investigate the differences in clinical manifestations and laboratory tests. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 10.0 for Windows . Results: A total of 85 patients were included. The mean age was 52 16 years and 82% were male. The main symptoms and signs presented at admission were trismus (68.2%), dysfagia (50.6%), and neck stiffness (41.2%). AFR was found in 10 patients (11.8%). Death occurred in 8 cases (9.4%). Hyperglicemia (OR = 1.014, p = 0.03), hyperkalemia (OR = 3.2, p = 0.04), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 1.000, p = 0.03) were associated with increased mortality. ARF was not associated with death (p>0.5). Conclusions: ARF is an important complication of tetanus, which was not associated with death. Hyperglicemia, hyperkalemia, and thrombocytopenia seem to increase mortality.
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Defluoridation of water by a one step modification of the Nalgonda technique
N Suneetha, K Padma Rupa, V Sabitha, K Kalyan Kumar, Shruti Mohanty, AS Kanagasabapathy, Pragna Rao
July-December 2008, 1(2):56-58
Defluoridation of water by the Nalgonda technique is a commonly used household process in areas of endemic fluorosis in villages around Nalgonda (Andhra Pradesh, India). The aim of this paper was to modify the existing well-known procedure minimally and without much change in the cost to bring about a greater removal of fluoride. By doubling the concentrations of alum and lime, water fluoride levels fell significantly (p<0.001) in tap water and drinking water while pH levels and other inorganic factors remained unaffected.
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Correlates of the immunization status of children in an urban slum of Delhi
Ahmad Imteyaz, Ranabir Pal, Mohd Akram, Mashkoor Ahmad, Hossain Shah
July-December 2008, 1(2):59-63
Background: This was a community-based, observational, cross-sectional study to determine the immunization status of children living in slums in the 26 blocks of Sangam Vihar and 4 blocks of Tigri extension area of South Delhi, India. Study Population: A total of 210 children between 12 and 23 months old. Sampling Technique: 30 cluster technique approved by the World Health Organization. Primary Outcome Measures: Immunization coverage by sex, religion, type of family, occupational status of the head of the family, stated average monthly family income, and education status of the mothers. Data collection procedure: Interview technique; principal investigator Dr. Imteyaz Ahmad collected the data using a standardized structured interview schedule with the mother/caregivers of children 12 to 23 months old after permission to conduct the study was taken from the civic authority of the local government. Record analysis of antenatal care for tetanus immunization by antenatal cards and BCG scar survey by observation of scar arm in the deltoid region for scar was also done by him. Results: One hundred and six (50.4%) children in our sample were found to be fully immunized, 88(41.9%) partially immunized and 16 (7.6%) were not immunized. Amongst these associations the difference of coverage by occupation groups and mothers education were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a discernable bias in favour of male children, Hindu children, children of nuclear family, children of non manual labour occupation parents, children from higher income family and children with mothers having high school or higher level education.
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Prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma in India
Ranabir Pal, Ankur Barua
July-December 2008, 1(2):73-75
The prevalence of bronchial asthma appears to have increased continuously since the 1970s, and bronchial asthma now affects an estimated 4 to 7% of people worldwide. Trends in childhood bronchial asthma from population-based prevalence and routine statistics in India were reviewed. The prevalence of bronchial asthma increased in a secular trend. The prevalence of a life-time diagnosis of bronchial asthma increased in all age groups. The incidence of new childhood bronchial asthma episodes increased. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma in India. Problem Statement: Bronchial asthma prevalence studies lack consistency, possibly because of the ill-defined diagnostic criteria and non standardized study protocols. From some of the important community survey reports, the median prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma in India was determined to be 3.3% (with IQR = 2.3-13.8%). Conclusion: Research during recent years suggests that the prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma has been on the rise. Due to a lack of nationally representative data on the prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of the disease, there is an urgent need for more public health research in this direction.
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