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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| January-February  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 13, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries
Farhad Ali, Rainer Kuelker, Belaynew Wassie
January-February 2012, 5(1):3-15
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92871  
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.
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CASE REPORTS
Recurring hand foot mouth disease in a child
Edwin Dias, Meena Dias
January-February 2012, 5(1):40-41
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92879  
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus A-16, a type of enterovirus. Individual cases and outbreaks of HFMD occur worldwide. There are reports of HFMD epidemics from India. Recurrence of HFMD is very rare. We report here, a sporadic case of recurrent HFMD.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Infection control practices among doctors and nurses in a tertiary care hospital
Manisha Jain, Vinita Dogra, Bibhabati Mishra, Archana Thakur, Poonam Sood Loomba
January-February 2012, 5(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92877  
Background: Basic infection control measures in any healthcare setup can reduce the rates of healthcare-associated infections. A study to assess the knowledge and practice of 400 healthcare personnel regarding hospital infection control practices was performed. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to the study group and collected the same day. Knowledge and practices of 329 nurses and 71 doctors regarding hand hygiene, SPs, hospital environmental cleaning and needle stick injury were collected and analyzed. Results: The study group had suboptimal knowledge regarding the SPs (55.3%) and risks associated with NSI (31.8%). The implementation of SPs was biased towards the HIV positive status of the patient. Only 57% of the doctors and nurses followed the maximal barrier precautions before a CVC insertion. Discussion: The lack of knowledge and practices regarding basic infection control protocols should be improved by way of educational intervention, in the form of formal training of the doctors and nurses and reinforcement of the same.
  2 21,010 47
CASE REPORTS
Orbital dirofilariasis
Bipasha Mukherjee, Jyotirmay Biswas, Meghana Anika Varde, Veena Noronha
January-February 2012, 5(1):42-43
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92880  
Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infestation with nematodes of the Dirofilaria species. Apart from pulmonary and cardiovascular manifestations; periocular, intraocular as well as orbital involvement have been described. Natural hosts to these parasites are domestic and wild carnivores like dogs, raccoons, foxes, and so on. Transmission occurs through a vector, namely Culex, Aedes or Anopheles mosquitoes. Humans can be accidental hosts and represent a dead end for the lifecycle of the worm. We present the case of a 61-year-old male patient in Tamil Nadu, India, presenting with orbital dirofilariasis, whose computerized tomography characteristics mimicked lymphoproliferative disease.
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EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue
Sabitha Kandi, Pragna Rao
January-February 2012, 5(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92870  
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions). TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave's disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto's thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Unusual neurological complications of wasp sting
Mukund Vidhate, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Rajesh Verma, Pawan Sharma, Pallavi Aga
January-February 2012, 5(1):44-45
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92881  
  - 9,147 15
Japanese encephalitis and rainfall in Thailand: A study on clinic-geographical correlation
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-February 2012, 5(1):45-46
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92882  
  - 1,855 16
Microfilaria in aspirate from metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in cervical lymph node
Monisha Choudhury, Mukta Pujani, Narender Tejwani, Meenakshi Rao
January-February 2012, 5(1):46-47
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92883  
  - 2,617 14
Lung abscess in a child
K Jagadish Kumar, S Mamatha, Anush S Kudakasseril, VG Manjunath
January-February 2012, 5(1):48-49
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92884  
  - 6,708 21
NEWS AND FILLER
Attitudes and problems related to voluntary blood donation in India: A short communication
Sourabh Aggarwal, Vishal Sharma
January-February 2012, 5(1):50-52
  - 17,078 21
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Value and importance of informed consent to researchers at Makerere University
Joseph Ochieng
January-February 2012, 5(1):16-19
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92872  
Background: Respect for persons requires that research participants be given the opportunity to make choices about what should be done to them. Many times, the process of informed consent is abused to the benefit of researchers while exploitation and harm to the research participants may occur. In Uganda, issues of questionable research ethics have been highlighted in the past. Objective: To determine the Value and importance of the informed consent process among researchers at Makerere University. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative descriptive study design involving faculty and graduate students in the faculties of Medicine and Social Sciences. Results: Of the 37 respondents 68% were faculty while 32% were graduate students in the fields of social sciences, clinical and basic sciences. Mean research experience was 8.5 years. More than 70% of the respondents have had no formal training in research ethics. Only 22% of the respondents appreciated the need for research participants to comprehend the informed consent; 38% thought it is not always the case and in many cases their subjects do not have to comprehend, while the remaining 40% believe that research subjects' understanding of the informed consent process may not be necessary. All respondents appreciated the importance of confidentiality although data management procedures were lacking by many. Conclusion: Most researchers appreciate the importance of confidentiality, but have limited understanding of the process of informed consent, information handling and the importance of feedback.
  - 10,735 15
Laboratory and clinical profile of dengue: A study from Mumbai
D Turbadkar, A Ramchandran, M Mathur, S Gaikwad
January-February 2012, 5(1):20-23
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92873  
Background: Dengue an endemic disease in most subtropical and tropical regions of the world is causing severe epidemics in India. An alarming rise of dengue has also been seen in Mumbai, during the recent years. Aim and Objective: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of dengue infection, based on laboratory rapid screening tests for IgM and IgG antibodies and the confirmatory IgM ELISA test and to study the seasonal variation and the clinical profile in these cases. Material and Method: A retrospective study of laboratory test results and clinical profile of suspected dengue cases was carried out in a tertiary care hospital over a period between January 2004 and November 2007. Result: Of the 3 677 samples processed by rapid test for antibodies against dengue (Denguchek), 503 (13.67%) gave positive results. Fifty-six samples (26.41%) were positive by IgM Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, of 212 rapid positive samples processed by ELISA test. Our study comprised of 315 adult and 188 pediatric cases. The common symptom of dengue was fever, icterus, myalgia, and headache. Thrombocytopenia (platelet counts <75 000/cmm) was seen in 386 (76.74%) cases. Seventy-seven cases (15.30%) positive by rapid screening tests for dengue antibodies were also positive for IgM/IgG antibodies against Leptospira by Dridot test (Rapid test). Of these, 49 (63.64%) were confirmed to be positive for dengue antibodies by the ELISA test. Conclusion: As dengue causes increased morbidity and mortality and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment for the proper management of these cases, the rapid screening test for IgM/IgG antibodies helps clinicians toward achieving this goal.
  - 5,517 17
Zinc phosphide toxicities among patients of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin city, Nigeria: A 10 year experience
SE Aghahowa
January-February 2012, 5(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92874  
Background: Due to the poor success rate associated with zinc phosphide ingestion, it became necessary to assess the incidence. Objective: To assess the incidence of zinc phosphide toxicities reported between June 2000 and June 2009 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Material and Method : Data were sourced from the archives of casualties of zinc phosphide poisoning. These were entered into a generated case data form after obtaining an ethical permission. Results: All the ages of the 23 casualties reported were within 37.74±13.20 years. The male-female ratio was 4.75:1. Nineteen [78.26%] died after reporting 13.52±11.34 hours following single ingestion. Twenty cases were due to suicidal tendencies; the most common reason given was because of frustration in life related to marital affairs. Among the three unintentional, two were accidental while the other was due to assassination. Postmortem was refused in all the patients that died. One attempted herbal medication. Oil and milk were the most frequent solvents used at home as first-aid care therapy. Three were unintentional. Nine came with empty sachets and containers brought by relatives. Sodium chloride intravenous infusion was the most frequently used. Duration of hospitalization was 13.38±15.60 hours. Intravenous ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were the most common antibiotics used. Oxygen was instituted in 78.26% of the victims during respiratory distress. One ate meal prepared from poisoned rodent and died after reporting. One had alcohol along with the Zinc Phosphide ingestion. Nine were reported at the drug and poison information centre. Conclusion: Attention is needed by all for proper regulation in the handling of poisons and related substances to reduce burden minimally.
  - 3,549 13
Challenges to the scale-up of the Nigerian National Health Insurance Scheme: Public knowledge and opinions in urban Kano, Nigeria
UM Lawan, Z Iliyasu, Abba Maryam Daso
January-February 2012, 5(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/1755-6783.92878  
Background : This study examined the challenges in the implementation and scale-up of the National Health insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : We designed this descriptive cross-sectional study to investigate the knowledge and opinions of 150 randomly selected adults in urban Kano regarding the NHIS. Data was analyzed using Epi Info™ 3.2.05 statistical software. Respondents' knowledge of NHIS was scored and graded using a system adapted from previous studies. Results : The mean age of respondents was 39.1 ± 11.1 years, and the majority were currently married (76.7%), males (76.0%), had formal education (82.0%), and were civil servants (52.7%). More than half (52.0%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of the NHIS. Respondents' knowledge of NHIS did not differ significantly by age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, or occupation. Although the majority (74.7%) opined that the NHIS is a good initiative, a significant proportion was pessimistic about the scheme: 31.3% said that it is a good scheme but not practicable and 28.0% felt that it is only for the rich. Conclusion : In view of the poor level of knowledge and the pessimism about the NHIS, the government/NHIS office should expedite the implementation of the package for the under-five children and/or the disabled to demonstrate the usefulness of the scheme. The Federal Ministry of Health, the NHIS, and the development partners should intensify efforts for public enlightenment, using electronic and print media as well as other traditional methods of communication.
  - 6,997 25
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