Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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   2018| May-June  | Volume 11 | Issue 3  
    Online since December 10, 2019

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Living conditions, work environment, and intention to stay among doctors working in rural areas of Odisha state, India
Manas Ranjan Behera, Chardsumon Prutipinyo, Nithat Sirichotiratana, Chukiat Viwatwongkasem
May-June 2018, 11(3):70-77
Backgrounds: In India, fewer doctors work in rural areas than urban locations, despite having greater health needs for rural populations. At the same time, living conditions and work environment present many challenges in rural and underserved areas. Therefore, fostering and creating a congenial work environment is of paramount importance in rural areas. This study analyses living conditions, work environment, and the factors that influence the intention to stay among doctors in current posts of work in rural areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: A nonexperimental cross-sectional study design was conducted to collect data from 233 doctors working in rural health facilities in Odisha, India. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 18. The statistical significance of the association between variables was assessed using logistic regression. Results: The study of the investigated doctor showed that 57.6% of doctors wanted to stay and continue working in rural areas for the next 36 months. The logistic regression outlined that age, time travel (one way) to workplace, and work environment were the significant factors that are associated with intent to stay in rural areas. Conclusions: Formulating effective strategies to bring about improvement in work environment for doctors community working in rural regions should form a critical component of rural retention efforts.
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The effectiveness of the auditing guidelines for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection using directive discourse
Kusbaryanto Kusbaryanto
May-June 2018, 11(3):59-61
Background: The rate of the microbial exposure incidence among nurses through a variety of ways remains high. Paramedics play a vital role as a medium of nosocomial infection transmission in hospitals, especially the spread through direct contact. Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the auditing guidelines for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) infection prevention and control using directive discourse in an attempt to improve compliance with handwashing among nurses in hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was quasi-experimental research using a pretest–posttest noncontrol design. The research subject consisted of a group of 25 nurses. Results: Measurement of handwashing before and after the treatment in the treatment group performed with a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test showed P value before the treatment was 0.200 and after the treatment was 0.200, indicating data were normal. T-test result showed there was a difference in the compliance with handwashing before and after treatment (P = 0.018, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The auditing guidelines for MRSA infection prevention and control using directive discourse were effective for improving compliance with handwashing among nurses in hospitals.
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Communication skills as one of the main competences of pharmacists
Galiya Umurzakhova, Arman Sultanbekov, Nurlyaiim Issatayeva, Kairat Zhakipbekov, Alma Shopabaeva, Clara Shertaeva, Ubaidilla Datkhayev
May-June 2018, 11(3):62-69
Context: The role of services, provided by pharmaceutical organizations for visitors, increases every year. Aim: The main purpose of the article is to form and develop communicative competence in the process of continuous professional training in the sphere of communication of the pharmacist. Settings and Design: The quality of the pharmaceutical service depends on where, how, and by whom it was provided. In other words, the quality of the pharmaceutical service depends largely on the personality of the pharmacist and the circumstances in which it takes place. Materials and Methods: The study considers general principles of effective communication between pharmacists and consumers of pharmaceutical services, colleagues, doctors, and other medical workers. Results: This article presents the basic concepts of communication, its process, and communicative competence in pharmacy. Conclusion: Properly organized pharmaceutical activities and professional staff who possess communication skills are an indispensable condition for effective work of the pharmaceutical organization.
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Mother to child transmission of HIV and its option B+ cascade predictors: An ecological study
Augustine Ndaimani, Inam Chitsike, Clara Haruzivishe, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Henry Ndaimani
May-June 2018, 11(3):87-94
Context: In 2013, the world Health Organization endorsed Option B plus as a strategy towards elimination of vertical transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The purpose of the study was to examine the Option B+ trends and outcome predictors in Zimbabwe. Aims: to examine the PMTCT trends in Mashonaland East Province in Zimbabwe to determine the programmatic correlates of reduced MTCT in the first three years of introduction of PMTCT option B+. Settings and Design: Ecological study in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Methods and Materials: The study was based on Option B plus data from the Provincial Health information system. Spatial mapping of MTCT rates was done using ArcMap 10.1. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression of the correlates of MTCT rates using R software based on step-wise Akaike information criterion. Results: The MTCT rate for Mashonaland East was 5.3% in 2014, 5.2% in 2015 and 4.0% in 2016. The predictors for reduced PMTCT included: booking the pregnancy with a known HIV positive status (β= -0.011, SEB=0.0035), arriving in labour and delivery with unknown HIV status (β= -0.029, SEB=0.0078), testing HIV positive at retesting in labour and delivery (β= - 0.04; SEB=0.03), women with unknown HIV status within 24 months post-delivery (β= - 0.0044; SEB=0.0032) and identification of HIV exposed infants within 72 hours of birth (β= - 0.01; SEB=0.0026). Conclusions: PMTCT Option B+ was associated with a decline in MTCT rate. Intensive psychosocial support of pregnant or nursing women may facilitate reduction of MTCT rates.
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Subcutaneous dirofilariasis of the cheek with microfilaremia
Neetha S Murthy, Anjana Gopi, Prachee Bele-Kenge
May-June 2018, 11(3):95-99
Dirofilaria is a filarial nematode of domestic and wild animals. Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis is an accidental zoonotic infection. Infection with Dirofilaria repens has been reported from various regions of the world, mainly from Europe, Asia, and Africa. Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles mosquitoes serve as the vectors for transmission of this infection. In India, a probable focus of human infection with D. repens has been identified in Kerala, costal Karnataka, and Maharashtra. Herein, we report a rare case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis of the cheek with microfilaremia attributed to D. repens in a male patient aged 25 years hailing from Mandya.
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Does this sarcoidosis case triggered by typhoid fever? A rare case report
Wisam A Yassin, Naghem Farouk Abed, Kifah H Abdul Ghafour, Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Jabbar
May-June 2018, 11(3):100-102
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease that characterized by the presence of nonspecific noncaseating granuloma of undetermined etiology. Its peak incidence was found in patients ᠆ years old. Globally, the disease is more common among Scandinavians and African Americans. In Asia, it is rare and the highest incidence was found in Japan and India. In Iraq, sarcoidosis is a rare disease, but there are no accurate records of its incidence. Mycobacterium spp. and Propionibacterium acnes are the most common triggering infectious agent, and corticosteroids are the standard treatment of choice for symptomatic patients for not ɣ year. In particular, this report presents a rare case of sarcoidosis that developed in an elderly Iraqi female with an unusual presentation. In addition, it has been heralded exceptionally by an acute typhoid fever with a possible correlation. She treated effectively with prednisolone for only 2 months without any complaint for 1½-year duration.
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Genotyping the human papillomavirus infection in Iranian women referred to Shahid Motahari Hospital, in Urmia, with real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques
Jalhe Bagheri Hamzyan Olia, Mohamad Hasan Khadem Ansari, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Haleh Ayatollahi, Hamid Reza Khalkhali
May-June 2018, 11(3):78-82
Objective(s): Human papillomavirus (HPV) is in viridae papillomavirus family. These viruses have been classified based on the DNA sequences. At least 120 types of these viruses have been identified. Different types of HPV genotypes are associated with lower genital tract infection. This study aimed to identify the genotypes of HPV that cause vaginal infections in women with infection. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on eighty patients with vaginal infection. Extracting viral DNA was performed automatically using MagCore Nucleic Acid Extractor (made in Taiwan) and MagCor® Viral Nucleic Acid Extraction kit (Cartridge code 202) made by MogCore Co. Taiwan, and genotyping the samples was carried out using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in the Light Cycler 96 System (made in Germany) and real-quality relative quantification-HPV infection high-risk (HR)/low-risk (LR) Multiplex Kit made by AB Analitica® Co. Italy. Results: Among the 80 samples, 30 people (37.5%) were positive for infection with HPV; evaluating the positive genotypes, it was found that of these, 16 people (53.4%) were infected with LR genotypes of HPV, seven patients (23.3%) were infected with only HR HPV genotype, and seven people (23.3%) were infected with both LR and HR genotypes of HPV (coinfection). Conclusion: Considering that HPV infection is asymptomatic, and it has a high prevalence in Iran, early diagnosis and prevention of progressing the infection can prevent the malignancies of the uterus. Molecular techniques, particularly real-time PCR, are reliable methods for detecting the HPV infection seven with quite low viral loads.
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Phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatographic analysis of tannin from Dryopteris, Asplenium, and Davalliain, Tahura, Batu, Indonesia
Eko Sri Sulasmi, Murni Sapta Sari, Sitoresmi Prabaningtyas
May-June 2018, 11(3):83-86
Context: Forest area in Tahura R. Soerjo has high moisture level with rainfall 1488 mm3/year, so it provides an optimum condition for ferns growth. Tannin is one of the secondary metabolites that have many benefits; it can be found in various amounts in plant body parts. Aim: The study aims to identify the tannin in three fern genera, namely, Dryopteris, Asplenium, and Davallia that were obtained from Tahura R. Soerjo. Materials and Methods: Both epiphytic (Davallia) and terrestrial (Asplenium and Dryopteris) fern samples were obtained from Taman Hutan Raya Raden Soerjo, Cangar, Batu city in May– August 2015. Powdered fern samples were extracted through maceration method using methanol (1:10). The methanol extract of fern were tested for the tannin presences using phytochemical screening and layer chromatography. Results: Thin-layer chromatography was done to confirm the screening results that indicate the existence of tannin. Phytochemical screening for gallotannin in methanol extracts positive results. All extracts perform a different number of spot and Rf value.Dryopteris and Davallia frond showed reddish-orange spot on the plate, while Dryopteris rhizome,Davallia rhizome,Asplenium frond, and Asplenium rhizome showed greenish brown on the plate.Conclusion: The phytochemical screening including tannin confirmation and thin-layer chromatography showed that all part (frond and rhizome) from Dryopteris,Davallia, and Asplenium contained gallotannin and tannin.
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