The World Health Organization (WHO) has urged countries to conduct active case finding activities to reduce TB prevalence. The goal is to detect 90% of cases by 2030. The WHO recommends conducting ACF among household contacts, health care workers, and migrants, as well as urban slum dwellers. The effectiveness of this approach should be determined by the local context, including the availability of Xpert.
In slum dwellers, active case finding can fill the gap of missed TB cases. This approach can be difficult to implement due to the limited human resource involved in house visits and the lack of adequate infrastructure. A second sample, especially one taken early in the morning, is essential for accurate diagnosis. In addition, health system staff must ensure two-way feedback and referral linkages to increase the yield of the screening process.
In India, TB remains a public health problem. The WHO recommends strategies for active case finding, including in low-income populations. An urban slum-dwelling population is a particularly difficult target for these efforts. In March 2016, a house-to-house survey was carried out in the slums of New Delhi. In this survey, individuals with a productive cough for at least two weeks were identified as potential PTB patients. Sputum samples were collected and tested for acid fast bacilli.
A community-based active case finding strategy can fill the gap in missed TB cases. However, implementing this strategy requires a large number of human resources to conduct house visits. A single case can be missed if the second sample is missing, or if the early morning sample is not collected. A good health system will make sure that contact investigation is completed and referral linkages are established between the two.
The study also looked at the cost-effectiveness of active screening for TB among slum dwellers. The authors found that there is an effective way to detect TB in the slums. The researchers used a meta-analysis approach to assess the burden of TB among slum dwellers. Despite the fact that there is no evidence of a slum-based TB prevention program, it is effective in detecting cases and preventing relapse.
While active TB screening is an effective way to identify slum dwellers, it is important to remember that detecting slum-dwellers can also detect HIV infections. The prevalence of slum-dwellers in a given area is estimated at 1.2 million people, according to the WHO guidelines. Therefore, screening for TB is essential for effective HIV prevention and treatment.
The WHO guidelines recommend screening for TB among slum dwellers. However, TB screening should be carried out in geographically defined sub-populations with extremely high undetected TB prevalence and with limited access to health care. The WHO recommendations also recommend screening for TB among slum-dwellers. A successful TB prevention program should also be a priority for communities.
TB is a common disease among slum dwellers. If a slum-dweller is affected by TB, he or she is likely to have a higher risk of infection. If the slum-dweller is infected with TB, the diagnosis may be delayed until he or she is treated. The patient’s condition may also make the disease more difficult to treat.
The WHO recommends screening for TB among slum dwellers, especially those who do not have access to health care. Moreover, active screening for TB among slum dweller populations can help improve the detection rate, resulting in lower TB morbidity and fewer secondary transmissions. In this way, the WHO also hopes to decrease the incidence of TB by identifying and treating more cases of slum dwellers.
While ACF for TB among slum dwellers is more effective than PCF, there are some limitations. The evidence from CEAs is not conclusive. The results of the ACF are correlated with the prevalence of TB in the slum-dwellers in the area. This means that a screening for slum dwellers is more efficient than a screening for other populations.