The present situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan suggests that it might be endemic in the province. Both P. papatasi and P. sergenti are known vectors of the disease, and these species live in the central and northern parts of the province. Further studies should focus on CL reservoirs and their vectors. This condition is a real concern for the region.
The endemic areas for cutaneous leishmaniasis are Isfahan and Golestan provinces in the southwest of the country. However, it is rare in adults and elderly people, with the rate of infection in this age group being as low as 32.3%. The endemic regions are also found in southwestern Iran, Isfahan, and Golestan.
Although the endemic regions are considered to be largely asymptomatic, the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years. Human incursion into forested areas and poor housing conditions have led to an increase in the number of cases. Climate change and drought have also affected the situation, causing widespread migration to these areas and compromising immunity. Infectious leishmaniasis is often difficult to diagnose and may require a combination of clinical signs and parasitological tests.
Regardless of the severity of the disease, treatment is an option in many cases. A skin ulcer can heal on its own, but treatment can accelerate healing, reduce scarring, and prevent further disease. In some cases, a skin ulcer can cause permanent disfigurement and may require plastic surgery. Ultimately, it is vital that a leishmaniasis patient receives treatment. There are several medications that treat the condition. Sodium stibogluconate, amphotericin B, paromycin, and miltefosine are the most common treatments.
The endemic areas of the Americas have been identified as major foci of the disease. In these regions, fifteen of the 22 pathogenic types of Leishmania parasites are present. Approximately 54 non-vector species are involved in the transmission of the infection. Sand flies, also known as chiclero, transmit the parasite through the bite of an infected person.
It is important to note that the current situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis is relatively rare in adult and old people. However, it is endemic in children and adults. Infection in this age group is rare in these areas. A study conducted in Iran in 2007 showed a 32.3% incidence of infection. Moreover, exposure to the sandflies in these areas was rarely common among older adults and infected individuals.
The diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis is based on a person’s personal history and the presence of a CL scar or lesion. The typical CL scar is an indolent ulcerated nodule or plaque. The lesion in humans is typically found in people who live in a warm climate. There are several treatment options available for this type of infection, including anti-malarial medications and vaccinations.