Recent reports have shown that dengue can cause a variety of neurological symptoms, and the disease is more common in certain regions than in others. The incidence of the disease has increased globally in recent decades, and similar cases have been reported in Southeast Asian and Pacific Island countries. Some researchers suggest that DENV is neurotropic, and have found antibodies to dengue in the CSF and serum of patients with suspected dengue infection.
Although the presence of neurological manifestations of dengue infection has been known since the 1960s, their connection to the disease has only recently been confirmed. Prior to this, the condition was considered secondary to the virus and systemic changes. In addition, it was believed that the dengue virus was not neurotropic. However, recent studies have shown that the virus can cause dengue symptoms in the peripheral nervous system and cerebrospinal fluid, indicating that it can cause dengue in humans.
The clinical features of dengue include severe encephalitis, behavioral disturbances, seizures, and paresis, among others. The incidence of neurological manifestations was relatively low in a study of a recent outbreak in the Philippines. The authors also noted that patients were not diagnosed with liver failure or altered neuroimages, despite the high prevalence of the disease. The lack of a definitive diagnosis is not the end of the world, however, and there is hope for a vaccine in the near future.
Some studies have shown that people with severe dengue can develop myelitis. This manifestation is rare, but it occurs in about seven to 30 days after infection. As a result, it is important to distinguish the symptoms from other diseases. The treatment for myelitis is the same as for encephalitis. This means that the patient must be hospitalized immediately for further evaluation. If the disease is severe, a doctor should consider surgery and MRI to rule out underlying causes of the myelitis.
The most important test to diagnose neurological manifestations of dengue infection is the RNA and viral antigen of the virus. The RNA and virus are present in the CSF in early stages of the disease, and antibodies can be detected up to five days after the onset of symptoms. In some cases, the infection is severe enough to affect the brain in many ways, and it can cause a coma, even death.
The neurological manifestations of dengue infection can include facial, oculomotor, and optic nerve palsy. In some cases, the disease can cause diaphragmatic paralysis. This condition has been reported in patients with the disease. In severe cases, the patient will experience a fever and may have a severe underlying condition. If the patient is still alive, he or she will be able to walk.