Infectious waste generated in healthcare facilities varies widely by region and season. The amount of HCW is proportional to the number of beds and the type of diseases treated. A study conducted in Central Macedonia showed a seasonal variation in the amount of medical waste per capita and a linear relationship between the number of beds and the amount of medical waste generated. The average daily generation rate of HCW is 198.3 kg per capita and varies from 0.51 kg in low-income areas to 1.1 kg in higher-income regions.
The most obvious seasonal variation in the amount of biomedical waste was observed in the organic fraction, which included cardboard, food, and garden waste. Among the other fractions, the amount of plastics and glass was higher in the lower and middle-income groups. In contrast, the proportion of infectious waste is lower among low-income and middle-income areas. The study’s authors suggested that the organic fraction is the most common source of disease-causing waste.
In general, seasonal variation in the amount of waste generated is not well-defined. In the high-income group, 75% of the MSW is organic. Paper and cardboard comprise another 9% of the waste. Plastics, cardboard, and glass are common across all socio-economic levels. The organic fraction is the largest proportion in the middle- and lower-income groups. Overall, this study suggests that the higher income groups are more likely to produce large amounts of organic waste.
The study focused on the organic fraction in India and found slight seasonal variations in the quantity of waste produced. In the winter season, households use diapers more, while the winter season generates minimal waste. The results also showed that the amount of waste generated varies based on temperature. The study concludes that these differences are related to seasonal temperature. Infection-causing medical waste should be dealt with in a responsible manner.
There are significant seasonal differences in the amount of food, paper, plastic, and glass waste. The amount of plastic and stone waste is lower during the winter season than during the summer. The consumption of diapers and milk during winter months increases, while the use of tetrahedron packs increases during the monsoon season. However, there is little variation in the amount of rubber and paper waste. The winter season is the most common season for MSW generation.
The amount of food waste increased during the winter season. The same was true for the quantity of Tetra PAK milk. The use of tetrahedron packs and diapers increased in all income groups. Moreover, the amount of infectious waste per day increased in the monsoon season and during the dry season. During the spring and summer months, the number of hospital patients and income level also increased.