| Abstract|| |
Context: Soft tissue is a non-epithelial extra skeletal tissue of the body exclusive of reticuloendothelial system, glia and supporting tissue of the various parenchymal organs. Aims: To study the clinico-pathological correlation, relative incidence of benign & malignant neoplasms, frequency of age, sex & site wise distribution & histopathological pattern of soft tissue neoplasms [STNs]. Setting and Design: Comprises of soft tissue neoplasms studied during six months. Cases of STNs diagnosed based on history and clinical examination and subjected to biopsy or surgery and subsequent histopathological examination were included while patients who were treated conservatively or referred to other hospitals and STNs of systemic organs were excluded. Materials & Methods: The tissues were fixed in 10% formalin and were processed. Sections of approximately 5 microns were cut and stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin [H & E] and immunohistochemistry [IHC] was done where ever required. All STNs were classified as per 2013 WHO classification. Result: Out of 70 cases of STNs recorded, 95.72% were benign and 04.28% were malignant. STNs in general had slightly male preponderance. Of all benign soft tissue neoplasms, the commonest was lipoma (64.28%) followed by peripheral nerve sheath (11.4%), vascular (8.5%), fibroblastic (4.28%), fibro-histiocytic (2.8%) and tumors of uncertain differentiation (2.8%) in the decreasing order to frequency. Conclusion: Availability of a modern, more logical histopathologic classification and standard nomenclature now offers a better clinic-pathological co-relation. The clinico-morphological evaluation is still the gold standard for the proper diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms.
Keywords: Benign, histopathology, malignant, neoplasms, soft tissue
Key message: Data regarding clinico-pathological study of STNs in rural set up are lacking in literature. Here an attempt has been made to collect and evaluate the same in this study and compare the results with other studies.
|How to cite this article:|
Baste B D, Swami SY, Narhire V V, Dhamecha M P, DíCosta G. A clinico‐pathologic study of soft tissue neoplasms: An experience from a rural tertiary care hospital. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:348-52
|How to cite this URL:|
Baste B D, Swami SY, Narhire V V, Dhamecha M P, DíCosta G. A clinico‐pathologic study of soft tissue neoplasms: An experience from a rural tertiary care hospital. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Apr 10];10:348-52. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/2/348/208703
| Introduction|| |
Soft tissue neoplasms (STNs) are defined as mesenchymalproliferations that occur in the extra skeletal, nonepithelial tissues of our body, excluding the viscera, coverings of brain and lympho-reticular system.
Like many other malignant tumors, the pathogenesis of most of the STNs is still unknown. Recognized causes include various chemical and physical factors, exposure to ionizing radiations, and inherited or acquired immunologic defects. Evaluation of the exact cause is difficult because of the long latent period. STNs can occur at any age. It has been noted that the histologic distribution of STNs is rather specific for a particular age group at a particular anatomical site.,
They arise nearly everywhere in the body, the most important locations being the extremities, trunk, abdominal cavity, and head and neck region.
Both benign and malignant STNs commonly present as a painless mass. When a soft tissue mass arises in a patient with no history of trauma or when a mass is persisting even after 6 weeks after a local trauma, a biopsy is indicated.
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a role to play in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions and FNAC under imaging guidance is done in intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal lesions.
STNs and tumor-like lesions have fascinated pathologist for many years because of their remarkably wide variety and the close histopathologic similarities between certain tumors with only subtle differences detectable on careful microscopic examination. This poses a diagnostic challenge to the histopathologist. They arise nearly everywhere in the body, the most important locations being the extremities, trunk, abdominal cavity, and head and neck region. It is sometimes possible to make an accurate diagnosis by detailed clinical history, physical examination, and naked eye examination of the tumors. Clinical features like age of the patient, location, and size of the tumor help greatly in narrowing down the differential diagnosis.
There are special techniques that have been successfully applied to increase diagnostic accuracy; these include conventional special stains, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetic and molecular methods.
Availability of a modern, more logical histogenetic classification and standard nomenclature now offers a better clinico-pathologic correlation.
| Aims and Objectives|| |
- To study the clinico-pathologic correlation of STNs.
- To find out the relative incidence of benign and malignant STNs.
- To study the frequency of age, sex, and sitewise distribution of these cases.
- To study the histopathologic pattern for understanding the classification and type of STNs.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present study comprises of all the STNs received in histopathologic section. Study was undertaken for a period of 6 months. The parameters included were age, sex, anatomical location, clinical diagnosis, relevant investigations, histopathologic features, and immunohistochemistry wherever necessary.
Cases of STNs diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination and subjected to biopsy or surgery and subsequent histopathologic examination were included in this study.
Patients who were treated conservatively or patients referred to other hospitals were excluded from this study. STNs of systemic organs (like leiomyoma of uterus)were excluded from this study.
Anatomical sites were categorized as upper extremity (including arm, forearm, wrist, and hand), lower extremity (including buttock, thigh, leg, and foot), trunk and others (including abdomen, shoulder, back, and chest wall), and head and neck.
The tissues were fixed in 10% formalin and processed through standard paraffin-embedding technique. Sections of approximately 3 µm were taken and stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin [H and E]. All STNs were classified according to 2013 WHO classification.
| Observation and Results|| |
The study was performed over a period of 6 months. During this period, total 1,286 surgical specimens were received for histopathologic examination in the histopathology section of our hospital. Out of these, 70 specimens were STNs.
The following results were drawn:
- Seventy cases of STNs were recorded in the department of pathology during 6 months.
- Benign STNs were 95.72%, while malignant constituted 04.28% of all STNs with a benign to malignant ratio of 22.3:1 [Table 1].
- STNs in general had slightly male preponderance with a M:F of 1.8:1 [Table 2].
- The male-to-female ratio among the benign STNs was 1.7:1 and among the malignant STNs was 2:1 [Table 3].
- Malignant STNs had a peak age incidence in the sixth decade.
- Of all benign neoplasms of soft tissue, the commonest neoplasm was adipocytic (64.28%) followed by peripheral nerve sheath (11.4%), vascular (8.5%), fibroblastic (4.28%), fibro-histiocytic (2.8%), and tumors of uncertain differentiation (2.8%) in the decreasing order of frequency [Table 4].
- The benign STNs had predilection for extremities and head and neck while the malignant STNs had predilection for the lower extremities [Table 5].
| Discussion|| |
Soft tissue is a nonepithelial extra skeletal tissue of the body exclusive of reticuloendothelial system, glia, and supporting tissue of the various parenchymal organs. It is represented by the voluntary muscles, adipose tissue, and fibrous tissue along with the vessels serving these tissues. They are classified according to the tissue they recapitulate (muscle fat, fibrous tissue, vessels, and nerves). Some STNs have no normal tissue counterpart but have consistent clinico-pathologic features warranting their designation as distinct entities.
In present study, the frequency of benign STNs [Figure 1] and [Figure 2] was 95.72% and malignant STNs [Figure 3] was 4.28% [Table 6], which is comparable with the studies done by Umarani et al., Jain et al., and Batra et al., whereas Kransdorf, reported 60.2% benign and 39.8% malignant STNs in their study. Petersen et al. had done a retrospective study and found 49% malignant, 11.4% intermediate, 35% benign, and 4.6% as tumors of uncertain potential. In other study of STNs of head and neck by Makino benign neoplasms were 96% and malignant were 45%. In all these studies, benign neoplasms predominated the malignant ones.
|Figure 1: A: Angiomyoma: showing thick walled blood vessels surrounded by bundles of smooth muscles. [H&E: 40X] B: Schwannoma: showing Antony A and Antony B areas. [H&E: 40X] C: Hemangioma: showing numerous capillary sized blood vessels. [H&E: 10X] D: Hamartoma: showing vascular, lymphatic, smooth muscle, fibrous and adipocytic components. [H&E: 10X]|
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|Figure 2: A: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma [Gross]: showing haemorrhagic and cystic area. B: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: showing cystic hemorrhagic area without endothelial lining & surrounded by tumor tissue. [H&E: 10X] C: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: showing spindle cells arranged in storiform pattern admixed with histiocytes & hemosiderin laden macrophages. [H&E: 40X]|
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|Figure 3: A: Liposarcoma [Gross]: showing greyish white tumour with cystic and haemorrhagic areas. B: Liposarcoma: showing plenty of adipocytes and occasional lipoblasts (Arrow). [H&E: 40X]|
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A single case of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma on lower extremity was observed in 60-year-old male patient. On gross examination, the tumor was 5 cm in diameter, grayish white irregular with areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, and myxoid component. Microscopically, it revealed chordoma-like areas admixed with giant cells, spindle cells, and areas of necrosis [Figure 4]. IHC revealed strong positivity with Vimentin [Figure 5].
|Figure 4: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma [Gross]: showing greyish white tumour tissue with areas of haemorrhage, necrosis and myxoid component. B: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: showing chordoma like areas. [H&E: 40X] C: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: showing pleomorphic sarcoma component. [H&E: 40X] D: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: showing myxoid component. [H&E: 10X]|
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|Figure 5: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma: showing strong positivity with Vimentin. [IHC: 40X]|
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The relative frequency of benign to malignant STNs is difficult to estimate accurately, since many of the benign neoplasms cause not much problems and hence patients do not report to the clinicians, thereby these lesions are not removed. All around the world, many workers analyzed various aspects of STNs like age and sex distribution, site, clinical features, and so on, which have been published in many literatures. Specific sarcomas tend to appear in certain age groups.
There is male preponderance in almost all STNs. In the present study, there were 45 males and 25 females out of total 70 cases of STNs, with M: F ratio of 1.8:1 [Table 7], which is same as in the study done by Beg et al.. Our study is also comparable with that of Kransdorf and Myhre-Jensen et al. Lazim et al. studied 213 cases of STNs in 1 year and reported a male preponderance in all STNs with M:F ratio of 1.7:1.
Regarding the site of STNs, in fair number of studies, the commonest site was extremities. Soft tissue tumors may arise in any location, although approximately 40% occur in lower extremities.
In the present study, 33.13% of benign STNs were seen in extremities followed by head and neck region (32.23%), which is comparable with the finding of Beg et al.'s study. The studies by Beg et al., Lazimet al., and Zhi-wei et al. stated that the commonest site for malignant STNs was the lower extremities followed by trunk and abdomen, whereas in case of Mandong et al., extremities were the most common site followed by head and neck region.
| Conclusion|| |
The diagnosis and management of STNs require a team perspective. Even though soft tissue sarcomas are rare and usually present just as painless mass, the clinician must be able to diagnose it early for better management.
A careful gross examination of the specimen and adequate sampling of the tumor is essential. Immunohistochemistry and special stains are helpful in addition to the routine H and E for the proper diagnosis of STNs. Availability of a modern, more logical histopathologic classification and standard nomenclature now offers a better clinic-pathologic correlation.
The clinico-morphologic evaluation is still the gold standard for the proper diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Sunil Y Swami
Bhagwanbaba Chowk, Shepwadi, Ambajogai, Beed, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]