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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 569-573
Knowledge and Attitude about Blood Donation Amongst Undergraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University of Central India


Department of Community Medicine (PSM), Rural Medical College and Pravara Rural Hospital of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India

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Date of Web Publication20-Mar-2013
 

   Abstract 

Background: The major part of demand for blood in India is met through voluntary blood donations. Students consists a large and healthy group who are able to provide a large number of blood donation. However, there is a paucity of studies on knowledge and attitude among undergraduate students from medical and paramedical branches. Objectives: A present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among undergraduate medical science university students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year undergraduate students from medical, dental, nursing, and physiotherapy disciplines in a Pravara institute of Medical Sciences University campus of central India during the period of May- August 2011. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good; however, majority (52.5%) of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among medical students (53.1%) and lowest among physiotherapy students (20.7%). Non-consideration, forgetfulness, and lack of time were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campus to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.

Keywords: Attitude, blood donation, knowledge, medical university students

How to cite this article:
Giri PA, Phalke DB. Knowledge and Attitude about Blood Donation Amongst Undergraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University of Central India. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2012;5:569-73

How to cite this URL:
Giri PA, Phalke DB. Knowledge and Attitude about Blood Donation Amongst Undergraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University of Central India. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2012 [cited 2017 Jul 20];5:569-73. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2012/5/6/569/109274

   Introduction Top


Blood can save millions of life, and young people are the hope and future of a safe blood supply in the world. [1] According to the World Health Organization, South East Asia's estimated blood requirement is about 16 million units per year, but it collects just about 9.4 million units annually, leaving a gap of 6 million units. [2],[3] India with its huge population of over 1 billion is lagging behind in blood collection. India has 2433 blood banks that can collect 9 million units of blood annually, but collects only 7 million. [4] Human blood is an essential element of human life with no substitute. The theme of World Health Day in 2000 was "Blood saves Life. Safe blood starts with me." Nowadays, blood transfusion is still one of the main components of care and treatment to patients with serious conditions such as trauma, major surgeries, chemotherapy, and patients in need of long-term therapies. [5] However, problems regarding a permanent shortage of blood are observed in blood services all over the world. [6] The only source of blood is blood donation, [7] however; recruitment of voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors poses major challenges to transfusion services throughout the world. [8] Increase in the level of awareness and development of a positive attitude towards blood donation is the topmost priority of all national blood transfusion centers. The first step for attaining this goal is to perform comprehensive studies about awareness and attitude of the population towards blood donation to gauge the present situation, beliefs and both positive and negative attitudes of the population towards blood donation. [5] In various studies, the awareness and attitude of people towards blood donation have been different. This difference is due to the difference in cultures and traditions, and therefore, in order for a program to be successful, it has to be in accordance with the culture and traditions of that society. [9] Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding blood donation amongst undergraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Deemed University of central India.


   Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year undergraduate students from different streams in a PIMS University campus of central India during the period of May - August 2011. Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) the Deemed University was established in the year 2003 under the provisions of section 3 of the University grants commission (UGC) Act 1956. It constitutes of medical, dental, physiotherapy, and nursing College. It is one of the premiere teaching and training public institution of central India that provides specialist's tertiary care services to patients largely belonging to lower/middle socio-economic strata of the society with rural background. The total study populations of 400 undergraduate students of PIMS University (100 students from each college) were selected by convenience sampling method. A pre-designed, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire in English was devised to collect data. Questionnaire consists of two sections; knowledge and attitude. Knowledge on blood donation was assessed through 18 questions. Each correct answer was given one score, and the range of the score varied between 0 (with no correct answer) to 18 (for all correct answers). Questions, which were assessing attitude, included 7 questions with 'Yes' and 'No' options. A scoring mechanism was used to understand overall knowledge level; a score of one has given for each correct response and zero for wrong response. Respondents with all correct response get a maximum of 18 points; higher points indicate good knowledge. Based on total score, knowledge level on blood donation was categorized into poor (≤ 6 points), average (7-12 points), and good (≥ 13 points). The participation to study was on voluntary basis. All participants were given a briefing about objective of the study and were assured confidentiality in collection of personal data. Institutional ethical committee approval was obtained for the study. Data was entered in MS Excel and analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version-13.0. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.


   Results Top


The response was gathered from a total of 400 respondents voluntarily participated in the study. The study sample consisted of 268 males (67%) and 132 females (33%). The mean age of male students was 23 years (standard deviation, SD = 0.2 years), and the mean age of female students was 22.2 years (SD= 1.0 year).
Table 1: Assessment of Knowledge about blood donation in the study population


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The level of knowledge of the population under study is shown in [Table 1]. Among medical students, 53.1% had shown good level of knowledge. While dental, nursing, and physiotherapy student's respondents showed good level of knowledge among 50%, 52%, and 20.7%, respectively. A statistically significant association was observed between blood donation knowledge and students from medical, dental, nursing, and physiotherapy disciplines.

As observed from [Table 2] that attitude towards blood donation was measured through 7 questions; comprises of questions on respondent's attitude towards the compensation offered for donating blood, has your attitude motivated others to donate blood, will receive blood from blood bank if in need and willingness to donate blood. Positive attitude towards blood donation was observed among 90.5% of respondents. College-wise results show that 97.3% of medical, 89.3% of dental, 92.5% of nursing, and 83.3% of physiotherapy students shown positive attitude. There is significance difference in attitude between students of different specialties.
Table 2: Assessment of Attitude about blood donation in the study population


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   Discussion Top


The present study shows that 52.5% never donated blood and the most important reason for not donating blood was non-consideration, forgetfulness and lack of time; similar findings by Shaz et al, [10] Shenga et al, [11] and Sabu et al[12] revealed 51%, 87.3%, and 62% participants had never donated blood, respectively. In contrast, a Nigerian study found that only 20.3% of their study population would not donate blood. [13]

In the present study, majority 92% of the students were aware of the appropriate age for blood donation and 72% of the students had knowledge about the lowest necessary body weight for blood donation. Similarly, study in Zanjan, conducted on 600 students, revealed a higher knowledge about the suitable age and a lower knowledge about the minimum weight. [14] In contrast, a study conducted in Saudi Arabia on 500 adult males revealed that only 0.06% of men were aware of suitable age for blood donation, while 28% knew about the minimum necessary weight. [15] In another study conducted in Kermen city found that only 11.7% of the students had knowledge of the appropriate age for blood donation and 51.2% knew about the necessary body weight for blood donation. [16]

In our study, about 87.5% of the participants believed that blood in the blood banks ready for transfusion were safe compared to 12.5% believing vice versa. Reason could be the blood banks always follow screening guidelines and eligibility requirements to make sure that blood donation will not harm the donor. Similarly, study by Abdul M revealed that 55.1% of the participants believed that blood in the blood banks ready for transfusion were safe compared to 44.9% believing vice versa. [17]

In the current study, only 8% of the participants believe that blood donation is harmful to the donor. Similarly, a study by Javadzadeh et al, found that only 0.3% of the population under study considered blood donation as harmful to the donor. [5] Another study by Abdul found that 11.5% of the participants believe that blood donation is harmful to the donor. [17] And, study by Sharma et al, also found the same belief in 4% of their sample. [18]

As for infectious diseases, most of the population in the present study (35.2%) believed that blood donation is a way for transmitting infections. Similarly, the study by Hossein et al, showed that (66.6%) believed that blood donation is a way for transmitting infections. [16] A study on 542 blood donors from Lagos State University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria revealed that 52.4% of the population in their study believed that blood donation is a way for transmitting AIDS and/or hepatitis. [7] Another study by Khadir et al also revealed that 40.4% of women declared that their unwillingness for blood donation is due to the risk of transmission of infectious and blood diseases. [19] Maintaining an adequate and safe blood supply is an issue of concern to local health planners, especially with the increase in demand as a result of an increase in population size and an increase in the number of medical facilities in India. Therefore, understanding the various factors contributing to attitudes and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion is crucial. Blood transfusion is a fundamental and requisite part of any national health service for the optimum management of emergency conditions like severe trauma, shock, and resuscitation.


   Conclusion Top


Educational Institutions across India have the potential of blood donors in the form of young and healthy students, which can meet the safe blood requirements of our country. Role of healthcare institutions and its student's in voluntary blood donation are pivotal. They should lead from the front to donate blood voluntarily and take all necessary steps to create more awareness program on blood donations among entire student community.


   Acknowledgment Top


We express our deep sense of gratitude to the Management, Pravara Medical Trust and The Principal, Rural Medical College Loni, Maharashtra, India. We also acknowledge the help and support of Dr. S. D. Dongre, Professor and Head, Department of Pathology and last but not the least; we are indebted to our final year medical students for their assistance during data collection of the study.

 
   References Top

1.Dhingra-Kumar N, Sikka M, Madan N, Sood SK. Evaluation of awareness and utilization of an autologous blood transfusion programme. Transfus Med 2001;11:177-82.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Available from: http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/BCT_BTS-SEAR.pdf. [Last accessed on 2011 May 5].   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Available from: http://www.financialexpress.com/news/7-blood-banks-to-get-quality-certificate/417881/. [Last accessed on 2011 May 5].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Available from: http://www.medindia.net/healthnetwork/medblogs/general/blood-banks-and-india-358.htm. [Last accessed on 2011 May 5].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Javadzadeh SH, Yavari MT, Attar M, Ahmadiyeh MH. Knowledge, attitude and practice study about donation in the urban population of Yazd, Iran, 2004. Transfus Med 2006;16:403-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Sojka BN. The blood-donation experience: Perceived physical, psychological and social impact of blood donation on the donor. Vox Sanguinis 2003;84:120-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Olaiya MA, Ajala A, Olatunji RO. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations towards blood donations among blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria. Transfus Med 2004;14:13-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Javadzadeh SH. Knowledge, attitude and practice of women about blood donation. Sci J Iran Blood Transfus Org 2006;3:213-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Wiwanitkit V.A. Study on attitude towards blood donation among people in a rural district, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2000;31:609-11.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Shaz BH, Demmons DG, Crittenden CP, Carnevale CV, Lee M, Burnett M, et al. Motivators and barriers to blood donation in African American College students. Transfus Apher Sci 2009;41:191-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Shenga N, Pal R, Sengupta S. Behavior disparities towards blood donation in Sikkim, India. Asian J Transfus Sci 2008;2:56-60.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Sabu KM, Remya A, Binu VS, Vivek R. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Blood Donation among Health Science Students in a University campus, South India. Online J Health Allied Scs 2011;10:6.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Okpara RA. Attitudes of Nigerians towards blood donation and blood transfusion. Trop Geogr Med 1989;41:89-93.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.Mortazavi Y, Mahmoodizadeh F. Evaluation of the awareness of students in Zanjan universities about blood donation eligibility criteria. Sci J Iran Blood Transfus Org 2008;5:195-202.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Alam M, Masameh B. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding blood donation among the Saudi population. Saudi Med J 2004;25:318-21.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Hossein S, Nasim P, Batool M. University students awareness and attitude towards blood donation in kerman city. Iran J Blood Cancer 2007;3:107-10.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Abdul Majeed Al-Drees. Attitude, Belief and Knowledge about Blood Donation and Transfusion in Saudi Population Pak. J Med Sci 2008;24:74-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Sharma UK, Schreiber GB, Glynn SA, Nass CC, Higgins MJ, Tu Y, et al. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and screening in United States blood donors. Transfusion 2001;41:1341-50.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]    
19.Khadir M., Maghsudlu M, Gharehbaghian A, Danandeh E, Faghih H, Vafaiyan V. The evaluation of the attitude of Iranian women towards blood donation. Sci J Iran Blood Transfus Org 2004;1:27-33.  Back to cited text no. 19
    

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Correspondence Address:
Purushottam A Giri
Department of Community Medicine (PSM), Rural Medical College, Loni, Maharashtra - 413 736
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.109274

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