Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-9

Human immunodeficiency virus disease management in highly active antiretroviral therapy era: A comprehensive review

1 Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Apollo Health City, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
K V Ramana
Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, Andhrapradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.115166

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the family Lentiviruses, which are responsible for chronic and long-lasting infections including the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in monkeys. Since 1981, when the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases were reported, HIV poses a challenge to human beings, and the UNAIDS global estimate reveals that currently more than 33.2 million people are living with HIV infection worldwide. HIV infection leads to variable disease course in different people. The biological basis of this variability in the disease progression is still unknown. Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) although reduced the mortality, morbidity arising from antiretroviral side effects was a cause of concern. HIV-infected patient care has now shifted from complications arising from opportunistic infections to other causes attributable to HIV pathogenesis and toxic effects of HAART. Monitoring the disease progression and the response to HAART is traditionally carried out using TCD4+ cell counts and HIV/RNA viral load. Many clinical and laboratory markers have been used to estimate disease progression in HIV1 infection. HIV/AIDS after introduction of HAART has taken a different course where people infected with HIV have been considerably living longer due to reduced incidence of opportunistic infections and other AIDS-related conditions. HIV patient care should be multifaceted involving specialist HIV primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and emergency physicians considering the ways by which HIV and HAART have changed treatment and management of HIV-infected individuals.

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