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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 164-176

The dynamics of bacteria population on the skin, throat, and gastrointestinal tract of HIV-seropositive patients


1 Department of Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
2 Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
3 Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
4 Department of Haematology, State Specialist Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
5 Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington DC, USA

Correspondence Address:
Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.165844

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Background: The study determined bacteria population on the skin, throat, and gastrointestinal tract of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients and HIV seronegative controls at the baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively, at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ilé-Ifè, Osun State, Nigeria and State Specialist Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria between May and November, 2012. Materials and Methods: Seventy HIV-seropositive subjects and 51 HIV seronegative controls who attended the HIV clinics were recruited. Skin, throat, and rectal swabs were obtained from the participants using sterile cotton-tipped applicators introduced into thioglycollate broth and incubated at 37°C overnight. When growth was noticed, the broth culture was streaked on different bacteriologic media and the isolates were characterized by the standard methods and disc diffusion for antibiotic sensitivity. Results: The number of isolates cultured from the HIV-seropositive subjects was 934, with the distribution being 397, 326, and 211 at the baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The distribution of 1,138 isolates cultured from 51 HIV-seronegative controls was 433, 354, and 351 at the baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. At the baseline among HIV-seropositive patients, the predominant isolates were Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus). However, Corynebacterium haemolyticum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were predominant at 3 months while at 6 months, Corynebacterium haemolyticum and Corynebacterium diphtheriae had the highest frequency followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens). In the controls, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus) predominated at the baseline and at 3 months while at 6 months, B. cereus, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were prevalent. Multiple resistances were widespread among the isolates. Conclusion: A preponderance of opportunists was observed in the HIV-seronegatives but higher multiresistant strains in the HIV-seropositives, suggesting both groups live in an antibiotic pressurized environment.


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