|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 134-137
|Natural Parasitism associated with species of Sarcophagidae family of Diptera in Iran
Kamran Akbarzadeh1, Abbas Ali Mirzakhanlou1, Hossein Lotfalizadeh2, Azam Malekian1, Teymour Hazratian3, Kosar Rezaei Talarposhti4, Rahman Babapour Darzi2, Ehsan Radi5, Abbas Aghaei Afshar6
1 School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
2 Head of East-Azarbaijan Research Center for Agriculture & Natural Resources, East-Azarbaijan Province, Iran
3 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
4 Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
5 Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
6 Leishmania research center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Click here for correspondence address and email
|Date of Web Publication||5-May-2017|
| Abstract|| |
Context: Sarcophagidae is one of the most important families of Muscomorpha. They have been reported from various parts of Iran. Native biological control agents, which may be substantial candidates for control of Sarcophagidae, have not been extensively studied in Iran. Aim: To identify main parasitoid wasps that are actively parasites pupa of Sarcophagidae in Tehran. Setting and design: Mass collection was done primarily by means of bottle traps in three city parks of Tehran. Collected pupa were kept solely in each plastic cup, and the wasps or adult flies were counted after emergence. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and rates. Results: Two parasitoid species, Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Brachymeria podagrica (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) emerged from the Parasited pupae. Parasitic rate for N. vitripennis was nearly 26.7%, and that for B. podagrica was closely 2.2%. The highest number of emerged adults from one pupa was 16 for N. vitripennis, with an average of about 10. In this study, Sarcophaga argyrostoma recorded as the dominant species of nonparasitized pupa and Wohlfahrtia nuba were fewer in number. Conclusion: Except for personal protection methods, there aren't other control measures for fly population in Iran. Before large-scale application of these parasitic wasps for the reduction of fly populations, their mass rearing and the methods of dispersing and their filed evaluations have to be done.
Keywords: Sarcophagidae, natural parasitism, Chalcididae, Pteromalidae, Iran
|How to cite this article:|
Akbarzadeh K, Mirzakhanlou AA, Lotfalizadeh H, Malekian A, Hazratian T, Talarposhti KR, Darzi RB, Radi E, Afshar AA. Natural Parasitism associated with species of Sarcophagidae family of Diptera in Iran. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:134-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Akbarzadeh K, Mirzakhanlou AA, Lotfalizadeh H, Malekian A, Hazratian T, Talarposhti KR, Darzi RB, Radi E, Afshar AA. Natural Parasitism associated with species of Sarcophagidae family of Diptera in Iran. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Sep 25];10:134-7. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/1/134/196593
| Introduction|| |
Some members of the infraorder Muscomorpha, belonging to the order Diptera, are of economic importance in medical and veterinary aspects. They can transmit some pathogens mechanically, or may produce myiasis by their larvae in human and animal body. Myiasis disease has been reported more or less in various parts of Iran, not excluding the capital, Tehran. Their potency in transmission of pathogens has been delineated by a study conducted on Musca domestica in Iran. Activities of some members of this group on human and animal cadavers have been very well documented in Iran.,
Chemical control of the medical and veterinary important flies may lead to serious problems such as insecticide resistance and hazards on the environment. These agents can also be a component of Integrated Pest Management programmes.
Some studies have confirmed that synchronized use of parasitoid wasps and Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) have resulted in a better control of fly population.
Biological control methods have been adopted extensively in the control of various pests in Iran since 1932, and great efforts for reducing the population of anopheline vectors of malaria in some places in Iran have been started. Biological control methods were not utilized in control of pests of public health importance in Iran. Sarcophagidae family of Muscomorpha comprises of flies which are important medically, veterinary, and forensically. They are reported from various parts of Iran. Some species of this family have been reported recently in Tehran.
Native biological control agents who may be potential candidates for control of Sarcophagidae haven't been extensively studied in Iran yet. This study has been conducted for identifying main parasitoid wasps, which are active on pupae of Sarcophagidae in Tehran.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The presence and activity of parasitoid wasps has been studied on pupae of family Sarcophagidae, which were collected from various places of Tehran including Kharazm, Shahr, and Laleh city parks during late summer and early autumn 2014. Three bottle traps have been installed in each park. Each trap has been equipped with 25 cow meat as bait. Adult Sarcophagidae flies were attracted to the bottles and deposited their larvae on the bait provided. The sampling process was conducted as a monthly schedule to allow maximum time for pupation of larvae in each bottle. Collected pupae were solely kept in cups covered with fine mesh net. Subsequently, after two weeks, the components of each cup were observed to detect parasitoids.
Collected parasitoid wasps were sent to the Agricultural and Natural Research Center of East Azarbayjan of Iran for species identification. Identification of adult Sarcophagidae flies was done by relevant keys. Parasitic index was calculated by dividing of parasited pupae per all exposed pupae, multiplied 100.
| Results|| |
As much as 270 pupae of Sarcophagidae family were placed exclusively in cups. A total of 72 pupae were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), and six pupae were parasitized by Brachymeria podagrica (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). Therefore, parasitic rate for N. vitripennis was closely 26.7% and that of B. podagrica computed to be 2.2%.
Total number of adult N. vitripennis that were collected was 718, which emerged from 72 parasitized pupae [Table 1]. The highest number of emerged adults recorded from one pupae was 16 for this species, with an average of nearly 10.
|Table 1: Number of parasitoid wasp, N. vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalida), emerged from separated Sarcophagida pupa, Tehran, Iran 2014.|
Click here to view
The emerged adult for B. podagrica was one by one host pupae. The occurrence of this species with low-parasitic rate was more scattered with respect to months and places.
Parasitized Sarcophagidae pupae died and couldn't be identified. Four species belonging to the family Sarcophagidae emerged from unparasitized pupae in the study area [Table 2]. Dominant species in this study was Sarcophaga argyrostoma and Wohlfahrtia nuba had fewer numbers.
| Discussion|| |
N. vitripennis is a cosmopolitan species, which is parasitic on Cyclorrhaphan fly's pupae such as Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, associated with various nests as well as carrion, therefore, can be additionally used as a forensic indicator in crime scenes.
In a similar study, which has been conducted in brazil, three species of parasitic wasps have been collected on pupae of Chrysomyia megacephala. Two of these three wasps were remarkably the same as investigated wasps in this study, N. vitripennis and B. podagrica. Similarly, in Argentina, these two species were recorded among some other parasitoids, and in agreement with this study, N. vitripennis was the most abundant parasitoid species.
N. vitripennis has been reported for first time as a potential biological control agent of Musca domestica in Iran. This species was confirmed in a preliminary checklist deduced by Lotfalizadeh and Gharali 2008. Recently, this species has been collected from Babol (Mazandaran province), north coast of Iran, during the conduction of a study on animal carrions (unpublished data). Interestingly, this is the first documentary report on activity of this species on pupae of Sarcophagidae in Iran.
One of the widely distributed genus in Chalcididae family of Hymenoptera is Brachymeria Westwood. Members of this genus are parasitoids of various important insect pests such as muscoid flies.
Previously, the genus Brachymeria belonging to the subfamily Chalcidina of family Chalcididae has been reported from Iran. B. podagrica has been reported from Kerman in 2011 and East Azarbayjan in 2012. The species has been reported as parasitoid of various families, for example, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae.
It is evidently showed that these two collected species of parasitic wasps act synergistically. Clearly, attacks of parasitic wasps is species-specific. However, the interaction between these species and their rate of specificity for any host of Iranian Sarcophagidae species is unclear.
Effectiveness of natural parasitoid, N. vitripennis in association with IGRs has been tested and proven for controlling house fly populations in United Kingdom. This species along with some other species of family Pteromalidae is available commercially for use in the control of medically important flies. Therefore, exploiting these natural enemies of medically and veterinary important flies for their control, and defining new protocol for fly control, is highly recommended.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflict of interest
There are no conflicts of interest to declare.
| References|| |
Service MW, Ashford RW. Encyclopedia of Arthropod-Transmitted Infections of Man and Domesticated Animals. Wallingford, Oxon, UK; New York, NY, USA: CABI Pub., 2001; pp. 579.
Marchiori CH. Parasitoids of Diptera of importance to public health, medical, veterinary and economic collected in two different types of traps in south Goiás, Brazil. Mitteilungen klosterneuburg 2013;62:23-28.
Oliveira JTM, Oliveira BMA, Gonçalves AS, Serra-Freire NM. corrência de miíases humenas na região da Baixada Fluminense, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Entomología y Vectores 2004;11:85-92.
Alizadeh M, Mowlavi G, Kargar F, Nateghpour M, Akbarzadeh K, Hajenorouzali-Tehrani M. A review of Myiasis in Iran and a new nosocomial case from Tehran, Iran. J Arthropod-Borne Dis 2014;8:124-31.
Kassiri H, Akbarzadeh K, Ghaderi A. Isolation of Pathogenic Bacteria on the House Fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), Body Surface in Ahwaz Hospitals, Southwestern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;S1116-S1119. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60370-0.
Talebzadeh F. Arthropod fauna of human corpses of Tehran district using molecular and morphological characters with emphasizes on flies. A thesis for MSPH degree. School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2015;6076.
Babapour Darzi R, Rafinejad J, Akbarzadeh K, Rassi Y, Enayati AA. Determination of the fauna of forensically important Arthropoda in the North of Iran. J Sch Public Health Inst Public Health Res 2015;13:27-34.
Vazirianzadeh B, Kidd NAC, Moravvej SA. Side effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitic wasp of house fly pupae. Iranian J Arthropod-Borne Dis 2008;2:1-6.
Endersby NM, Morgan WC. Alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for use in crucifer crops. Biol Agric Hortic 1991;8:33-52.
Srinivasan R, Amalraj DD. Efficacy of insect parasitoid Dirhinus himalayanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and insect growth regulator, triflumuron against house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Indian J Med Res 2003;118:158-66.
Abivardi C. Iranian Entomology - An Introduction: Volume 2: Applied Entomology. Springer Science& Business Media, 2001;9:pp 795.
Shahi M, Kamrani E, Salehi M, Habibi R, Hanafi Bojd AA. Native larvivorous fish in an endemic Malarious area of Southern Iran, a biological alternative factor for chemical larvicides in malaria control program. Iran J Public Health 2015;44:1544-49.
Rafinejad J, Akbarzadeh K, Nozari J, Rassi Y, Sedaghat MM. Hosseini M, et al.
, Spatial distribution of Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera) in Fars province, Iran. Intl Res J Appl Basic Sci 2014;8:135-39.
Mirzakhanlou A. Study on fauna of medically important flies inselected hospitals in Tehran city. A thesis for MSPH degree. School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2014;5579.
Lehrer AZ. Entomologica, Annali di Entomologia Generale ed Applicata, Pubblicari del Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-Forestale ed Ambientale, Sez Entomologia e Zoologia, XLII: Bari 2010;453.
Marchiori CH, Pereira LA, Silva Filho OM, Ribeiro LCS, Borges VR. First occurance of parasitoid spalangia (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in Brazil. Biotemas 2002;15:75-78.
Van den Assem J, Werren JH. A comparisons of the courtship and mating behaviors of three species of Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). J Insect Behavior 1994;7:53-66.
Frederickx C, Dekeirsschieter J, Verheggen FJ, Haubruge E. Host-habitat location by the parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). J Forensic Sci 2014;59:242-9.
Grassberger M, Frank C. Temperature-related development of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis as forensic indicator. Med Vet Entomol 2003;17:257-62.
Marchiori CH. Parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) collected in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 2004;38:1-2.
Horenstein MB, Salvo A. Community dynamics of carrion flies and their parasitoids in experimental carcasses in central Argentina. J Insect Sci 2012;12:1- 10.
Iranpour M, Tirgari S, Shayeghi M. First attempt on the study of the biology and mass rearing of two Iranian parasitoids of house fly pupa: Muscidifurax raptor
Gireault& Sanders and Nasonia vitripennis
Wlk. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Department of Entomology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 and 2 Department of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran Medical Sciences University, Iran.
Lotfalizadeh HA, Gharali B. Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Iran: new records and a preliminary checklist. Entomofauna 2008;29:93-120.
Marchiori CH, Pereira LA, Silva Filho OM, Ribeiro LCS. Borges VR. Brachymeria Podagrica
Fabricius, 1787 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as parasitoids of Sarcodexia lambens
(Wiedemann) (Diptera: arcophagidae) in Brazil. Arq Inst Biol, São Paulo 2002;69:121-22.
Marchiori CH, Ocorrência de Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) como parasitóide de Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) no Brasil. Entomol Vect 2001;8:513-17.
Lotfalizadeh H, Ebrahimi E, Delvare G. A contribution to the knowledge of the family Chalcididae (Hym.: Chalcidoidea) in Iran. J Entomol Soc Iran 2012;003A:67-100.
Radjabi M, Lotfalizadeh H, Madjdzadeh SM. The family Chalcididae (Hym.: Chalcidoidea) from Kerman province, southeastern Iran with some new records. Acta Zool Bulg 2011;63:263-68.
Olivia A. Parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera) from puparia of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Rev Soc Entomol Argent 2008;67:139-41.
Morgan PB, Berti-Filho E, Costa VA. Life history of Spalangia gemina (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a fast-breeding microhymenopteran pupal parasitoid of muscoid flies. Med Veterinary Entomol 1991;5:277-81.
Dr. Abbas Aghaei Afshar
Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2]
| Article Access Statistics|
| Viewed||2219 |
| Printed||72 |
| Emailed||0 |
| PDF Downloaded||31 |
| Comments ||[Add] |