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Table of Contents   
REVIEW ARTICLE  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-15
Sand fly fever: An important vector-borne diseases for travelers?


Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication5-May-2017
 

   Abstract 

Context: Sand fly fever is a vector-borne viral infection and is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in areas that are infected with different types of leishmaniasis. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to very high fever and photophobia in patients. During the last decades, an increase in imported sand fly fever cases in developed and nonendemic countries have been pointed out from an international literature review. Among the possible causes are increasing international travelers, travel of immigrants from endemic area, and army operations. It has been noted that the main region for the diseases are west of Asia and east of Europe, and perhaps imported cases may be seen clinically in different parts of the world, either in developed or in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Two methods were used to gather the information for this article. First, PubMed was searched for English language references to published relevant articles. Second, the term sand fly fever was searched on Google Scholar too. Results: In PubMed, 156 articles and in Google Scholar, 70,400 articles mentioned the term sand fly fever. The most searched items in PubMed were epidemiology, treatment, prevention, and life cycle with incidences of 41.66, 20.51, 13.46, and 1.92%, respectively, and in terms of geographical distribution of the study, the maximum number of articles in PubMed were published from Europe, Asia, Australia, and America, with percentages being 26.92, 17.30, 17.0, 1.28, and 1.28%, respectively. Conclusion: Different countries have reported the disease either as an endemic or as an imported one. co-infection. Sand fly fever must be considered in the diagnostic assessment of patients presenting with a similar clinical syndrome and a history of travel to an endemic area, which are mentioned above. Adventure travelers, researchers, military personnel, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sand flies in endemic areas; these travelers should receive counseling regarding sand fly fever appropriate protective health measures. In this review article sand fly fever situation will be studied.

Keywords: Sand fly fever, travel, health measures, Iran, world

How to cite this article:
Tavana AM. Sand fly fever: An important vector-borne diseases for travelers?. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:13-5

How to cite this URL:
Tavana AM. Sand fly fever: An important vector-borne diseases for travelers?. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Aug 22];10:13-5. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/1/13/196521

   Introduction Top


Sand fly fever, also called 3-day fever, phobeltomos fever, papatsi fever, is well described by scientists previously.[1] Nowadays the disease became as an important infection not only for mortality (because no cases has been reported so far) but also for very hard morbidity. In addition, the disease more prevalent in conflict and wars.[2],[3]

The epidemiology of disease related to many factors

Agent: Sand fly fever is arboviruses and belongs to Bunyaviridea family and genus of Narioviurses, and more than six serotypes of viruses including Karimabad, Salehabad, Sicilian, Naples, Tehran virus, and Toscana were introduced at present time.

Sources: Rodents may be the main source of infection and the virus could come from these animals and infected patients.[5],[6],[7],[8],[30]

Transmission: Via blood feeding either from rodents to human or from patients to susceptible populations and vertical transmission in sand flies. It is transmitted to humans by the bloodsucking female sand fly (notably Phlebotomus papatasi, P. perniciosus, and P. perfiliewsi).[9],[10]

Susceptible population: People who are travelling to endemic area. The blood transfusion may be infected by virus and not identified.

Geographical distribution

The disease has been reported from Asia, Europe, and other continents as endemic form or imported cases. The disease mostly has been seen in conflicts and wars. Mehrabi Tavana's study has shown the report of sand fly fever during Iraq-Iran imposed War 1980-1988. It has to be said that the disease was seen in the Persian Gulf during war between Iraq and the United State. During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, the disease was seen among American Army. It must not forget that the disease also has been reported in World War II in the same region (Persian Gulf). It has to said that it is more prevalent in the moist subtropical countries, particularly around the Mediterranean Sea, in the Middle East, and many parts of world even in Europe and Africa. Its epidemic form may be occurred during the spring and summer season.[1],[2],[3],[4],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20]

The sign and symptoms

Patients mostly experience high fever (>39°C) with back pain, muscle pain, and photophobia during acute period of the disease. During the febrile period, fatigue and weakness and a low blood pressure and pulse may also be seen.

Identification: Mostly could be done for measuring Abs by using ELISA by comparing acute and cove lance titrage.

Vaccine and immunity

No vaccine has been available so far but the patients become immune for at least for 2 years against specific sand fly fever serotypes. The people are living in the endemic area mostly are immune from their childhood for their own life.[6],[7],[8]

Control

Prevention always is better than cure, including health education, using the bed nets and repellents are useful. The disease has no mortality fortunately and patients become healthy after a few days after high fever. Based on the sign and symptoms, there is no specific cure guideline for that. Nonspecific treatment including have rest for at least week and using painkiller and the drug in order to reduce fever and replacement of fluid by IV way could be useful anyway.[1],[2],[3],[4]

Materials and Methods

Two methods were used to gather the information for this article. First, PubMed was searched for English language references to published relevant articles. Second, the term sand fly fever was searched on Google Scholar too.


   Discussion Top


Sand fly fever has been seen in the past in many parts of the world, particularly in the war time such as World War I and II, imposed war Iraq against Iran 1980−1988,[1],[2],[3],[4] and war that was named Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, which was beginning in August 1990 and approximately 800,000 coalition troops were deployed to the Persian Gulf.[2] It was mentioned that sand fly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis was seen.[2]

The disease also was reported from different countries in peace time from different continents too.[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37] In nonendemic area, the disease may be reported in the future by doing many research in this field.


   Conclusion Top


There is no vaccine against sand fly fever at the present time. The report of the disease has been increased in the previous century and perhaps in the 21th century too. The research must be focused on sand fly fever with different aspects, in particular prevention and control the infection anyway in the next coming decade. Do not forget the main key for preventions are to avoid sand fly bites, use protective clothing and insect repellant. In this regard, the care must be taken by the travelers any way.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

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Tavana AM. Sand fly fever in the world. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2015;8:83-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
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21.
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Correspondence Address:
Ali Mehrabi Tavana
Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196521

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