Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 165-181

Evaluation of risk factors in MTCT among HIV-seropositive pregnant women in selected centers in Akure, South Western Nigeria

1 Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mother and Child Hospital Akure, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.205567

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Background: The burden of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major challenge in Nigeria, the country ranks highest globally. About 10% of global HIV-infected individuals live in Nigeria, of which 58% are women. The study analyzed risk and cofactors of MTCT in healthcare centers of Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between November 2014 and April 2016. Methods: A total of 240 pregnant women aged 19–43 years were recruited for the study, 114 HIV-seropositive mean age 31.81 years and 126 HIV-seronegative mean age 29.05 years as controls. High vaginal sawbs, breast milk, oropharynx, and neonates' nares were collected using sterile cotton-tipped applicator and introducing each into thioglycollate fluid medium for growth. Bacterial isolates were characterized by the standard microbiological methods and API kits. HIV serostatus of each participant was determined by HIV-1/2 strip and confirmed by Abbott enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. Sexually transmitted infections were detected by the enzyme immunoassays using commercial kits. Results: A total of 2,148 bacterial isolates were recovered from both cohorts (911 from HIV-seropositive, 864 HIV-seronegative, and 373 from neonates' nares). Predominant pathogens recovered were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and diverse corynebacteria as commensals. Coinfection of HIV with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was prominent. About 92.1% of patients received combination ART. Neonates mortality rate was 10.5 and 7.8% mothers were potential transmitters. Spontaneous vaginal delivery accounted 91.7% deliveries. Conclusion: Incidence of STDs among HIV-seropositive was 77.5 and 22.5% for HIV-seronegative. Incidence of spontaneous vaginal delivery was 91.7% in HIV-seropositive women and 10.5% mortality rate recorded for neonates and 7.8% transmission for mothers posed high risk of MTCT, which is epidemiological significant.

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