Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Home About us Ahead Of Print Instructions Submission Subscribe Advertise Contact e-Alerts Editorial Board Login 
Users Online:1351
  Print this page  Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 


 
Table of Contents   
LETTER TO THE EDITOR  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 278-279
Switching from trivalent to bivalent OPV: A landmark step in the global eradication of Polio


Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication5-May-2017
 

How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Switching from trivalent to bivalent OPV: A landmark step in the global eradication of Polio. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:278-9

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Switching from trivalent to bivalent OPV: A landmark step in the global eradication of Polio. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 21];10:278-9. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/1/278/205570
Dear Sir,

Polio is an infectious disease, which predominantly affects the children in the under-five year age group.[1] As the disease is a potential candidate for global eradication, due to the presence of various favorable factors (like no animal reservoirs, no chronic carriers, availability of an extremely effective vaccine, etc.), the stakeholders from across the world adopted the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the year 1998.[1],[2] Since then, the number of cases has been reduced by more than 99% and only couple of nations across the world are reporting ongoing transmission.[1]

It is very important to understand that as long as a single child remains infected, children from across the world are at the risk of acquiring the infection.[1] The oral polio vaccine (OPV) has played a crucial role in reducing the case load, and has prevented in excess of 10 million cases.[1] Nevertheless, it is the need of the hour to adopt newer initiatives to ensure the global eradication of the disease (both wild and vaccine-derived polio) once and for all.[2],[3] In an attempt to stop vaccine-derived polio virus, it was decided to gradually withdraw the OPV in a phased manner from all the immunization programs globally, as there is a potential risk of development of vaccine-induced polio as OPV contains attenuated polioviruses, which are not associated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV).[4],[5] Thus, the global stakeholders aim for complete cessation of all OPV in routine immunization as soon as possible after the eradication of wild poliovirus transmission.[3],[4],[5]

It was recommended to withdraw type 2 component of OPV (as it was globally eradicated in 2015) and implement a global switch from trivalent to bivalent OPV containing only types 1 and 3.[4] Anticipating the risk of immunity gap or reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus after the withdrawal of type 2 OPV, the expert group recommended that all the nations which are using OPV in their national immunization schedule should introduce at least one dose of IPV before implementing the trivalent to bivalent OPV switch.[3],[5]

Keeping pace with the laid down roadmap, in excess of 150 nations worldwide have implemented the switch and introduced bivalent vaccine in the immunization schedule to accelerate eradication activities by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses.[4] However, there is a great need to do effective monitoring and assist nations to implement the switch, discard all the stocks of trivalent vaccines, and replace them with the bivalent types.[3],[4] Subsequently, in the future on eradication of the types 1 and 3, the use of OPV will be completely stopped and replaced with IPV.[3] At the same time, adequate attention has been given toward the strengthening of the surveillance and outbreak response capacity to minimize the risk of re-introduction of type 2 poliovirus.[4],[5]

To conclude, in the global mission to eradicate polio, the shift from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV is a major milestone. However, we can expect to live in polio-free world in the future, provided all the stakeholders work in a concerted manner to deal with this infectious disease.

Acknowledgement

SRS contributed in the conception or design of the work, drafting of the work, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work.

PSS contributed in the literature review, revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work.

JR contributed in revising the draft, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
World Health OrganizationPoliomyelitis - Fact sheet. 2016;Available from: http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/ [Last accessed on 2016 May 5.]  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
World Health OrganizationGlobal Polio Eradication Initiative. Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 Geneva: WHO press; 2015;p. 1-13.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Patel M, Zipursky S, Orenstein W, Garon J, Zaffran M. Polio endgame: the global introduction of inactivated polio vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines 2015;14:749-62.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
World Health OrganizationThe Western Pacific Region takes part in a global switch to a new polio vaccine: A key step in achieving a polio free world. 2016;Available from: http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/releases/2016/20160505/en/ [Last accessed on 2016 May 8.]  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
World Health OrganizationIntroduction to inactivated polio vaccine and switch from trivalent to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine worldwide, 2013-2016. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2015;90:337-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
3rd Floor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai Village, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Sembakkam Post, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.205570

Rights and Permissions




 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *


    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed544    
    Printed9    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded18    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal