Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 391-395

Snake bite envenomation seen at a specialist hospital in Zamfara state, North-Western Nigeria


1 Nephrology Unit, Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodio University Teaching Hospital/Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto; Department of Medicine, Ahmad Sani Yariman Bakura Specialist Hospital, Gusau, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Usmanu Danfodio University Teaching Hospital/Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto; Department of Paediatrics, Ahmad Sani Yariman Bakura Specialist Hospital, Gusau, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Ahmad Sani Yariman Bakura Specialist Hospital, Gusau, Nigeria
4 Department of Medicine, North-West University Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Aminu Muhammad Sakajiki
Nephrology Unit, Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodio University Teaching Hospital/Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.208730

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Introduction: Snake bite is an underreported public health problem in Nigeria, with a prevalence of 5 per 1,000 persons per year. Morbidity and mortality from snake bites is higher in developing than in developed countries. We aim to audit the clinical parameters, complications, and outcome of patients with snake bites admitted at our hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective secondary data analysis whereby all children and adults managed for snake bite over a 2 and a half year period were included. Their case records were retrieved and relevant demographic and clinical information obtained and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18. Results: Out of 5,375 admissions, 25 had snake bite giving an incidence of 0.00465 (4.65/1000). There were 17 (68%) children and 8 (32%) adults. Males were 18 (72%) giving a M:F ratio of 1.4:1. Mean age was 20.6 ± 14.36 with a range of 3–55 years. Most bites, 18 (72%) occurred on the lower limbs, during the day time 15 (65%) and happened in the farm. The highest prevalence of bite was between the months of May and August. Prior to presentation, 12 (48%) had received various interventions and features of envenomation including local swelling and pain (76%), prolonged clotting time (56%), bleeding from various sites (52%), while (32%) had various complications. All patients had antitetanus toxin, while 23 (92%) received antisnake venom. Majority of the patients were discharged 19 (76%), 4 (16%) signed against medical advice, and 1 (4%) absconded, while only 1 (4%) died. Conclusion: Snake bite in our environment commonly affects children and adolescents with majority of patients coming late to hospital. Protective clothing and health awareness campaigns to educate the community are urgent interventions needed to reduce the morbidity from snake bite.


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