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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1015-1018
Evaluation of cadmium and lead levels in fillet marine fish (Otolithes ruber and Lutjanus johni)-from Persian Gulf


1 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Student Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Sciences, Khorramshahr, Iran
4 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

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Date of Web Publication5-Oct-2017
 

   Abstract 


Background: Pollution of aquatic system with heavy metals is one of the important environmental problems that can make toxic marine organisms and aquatic food chain, so it is a risk factor for human health over time. Objective: The present study aimed to the evaluation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) Levels in fillet marine fish (Otolithes ruber and Lutjanus johni) from Persian Gulf. Materials and Methods: At the first, 50 fish samples (O. ruber and L. johni) were collected during winter and spring of 2012 at three different sites from Persian Gulf. The Cd and Pb concentrations were determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results expressed in micrograms of metal per dry weight gram of fish (μg/g). Results: The results were validated according to the International Standards Organization 17025 accreditation. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software at the significant level of 95%. Maximum Cd and Pb concentration were seen in O. ruber (0.47 μg/g and L. johni (3.12 μg/g), respectively. No significance difference between the fish size and the metal levels for Cd was recorded in fish (P > 0.05). The relationship between the fish size and Pb level in the muscles was positive in two fish species (P < 0.05). Pb concentration was increased with increase of the length of fish, simultaneously. Conclusion: In all samples, Cd level was minimum. Pb concentrations in two fish specimens of this study exceeded FAO/WHO, IAEA-407, TFC, EC, and Chine but had not exceeded the guidelines limits except for the range of international standards. The metal accumulation in the aquatic organism may be species and size-dependent.

Keywords: Fish, heavy metal, Lutjanus johni, Otolithes ruber, Persian Gulf

How to cite this article:
Sadeghi E, Pirsaheb M, Mohammadi M, Salati AP, Sharafi H, Mirzaei N, Bohlouli S. Evaluation of cadmium and lead levels in fillet marine fish (Otolithes ruber and Lutjanus johni)-from Persian Gulf. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1015-8

How to cite this URL:
Sadeghi E, Pirsaheb M, Mohammadi M, Salati AP, Sharafi H, Mirzaei N, Bohlouli S. Evaluation of cadmium and lead levels in fillet marine fish (Otolithes ruber and Lutjanus johni)-from Persian Gulf. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 19];10:1015-8. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/4/1015/215884



   Introduction Top


Inter heavy metals with unauthorized range in human body, has harmful effects on human health.[1],[2],[3]

However, some elements and metals are important in body. They play vital role in biological and physiological systems. The main role of these elements such as iron, zinc, and manganese are functional and structural, in enzymatic systems.[4],[5] There are so many elements in seafood and necessary for human body at low concentrations, but they can be poisonous in body at high concentrations. The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) can make toxic effects at high concentrations and low concentrations when ingested over a long time. At high level, these heavy metals can be considered as risk factors for several diseases.[6]

Heavy metals obviously occur in seawater in very low concentrations, but their concentration levels have increased due to environmental contaminants such as industrial wastes and geochemical structure.[7],[8],[9] Therefore, pollution of aquatic system with heavy metals is one of the important environmental problems that can make toxic marine organisms and aquatic food chain, so it is a risk factor for human health over time.[10],[11] Heavy metals can enter from sea water into the fish body and vital organs such as muscles, liver, and kidney.[12],[13] In general, some of the metals, especially heavy metals found in fish body that copper, iron, and zinc are essential metals while mercury, Pb, and Cd are toxic metals. It is clear essential metals, and heavy metals can have toxic effects at low levels in a long time and at high concentrations in short time.[14] In fish, there are many reports about exist of heavy metals in different concentration that reported upper than normal levels.[15],[16],[17] The provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee for Cd and Pb are 7 μg Cd/kg body weight (wt)/week and 25 μg Pb/kg body wt/week, respectively.[18]

Heavy metals could remain for a long time in water and sea foods and can transport in varies concentrations to marine organisms.[19],[20] Fish is one of the marine organisms that is the main part of the human diet especially people live seaside. Human face heavy metals risks when they consumed polluted fish in their diet.

Objective

The aim of this research is to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) accumulation in fillet marine fish (Otolithes ruber and Lutjanus johni) that they are commercially important fish species caught from Persian Gulf.


   Materials and Methods Top


The number of 50 fish (no = 25 for each species) were collected during winter and spring of 2012 at three different sites of from Persian Gulf. Captured fish were immediately frozen and stored at –20°C until dissection. During dissection in the laboratory, the specimens were weighed, and their standard length was measured. Then, a portion of 20 g of muscle fillets was removed from each fish.

Tissues were dried in an oven at 60°C till constant weight. After that, they were digested with 2 ml HNO3 (65%, Merck, Germany) in Teflon bombs placed into a microwave digestion system. After cooling, they were transferred to a 50 ml volumetric flask and rinsed with triple distilled water. For each five samples analyzed, one analytical blank was prepared as a control in the same manner, but without tissue samples, to check for possible contamination of the samples. The Cd and Pb concentrations were determined with a Perkin-Elmer-5100 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results expressed in micrograms of metal per dry wt gram of fish (μg/g). The results were validated according to the International Standards Organization 17025 accreditation.[17]

Statistical analysis was performed SPSS software aided (SPSS Inc., version 16.0, Chicago, Delaware) at the significant level of 95%. The results are presented as means ± standard error. Data were tested for normality by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Homogeneity of variances analysis of variance was employed to reveal significant differences between sizes of fish. When a difference was detected (P < 0.05), Tukey's multiple comparison test was used to discriminate differences between the treatments. By “Independent sample t-test,” relation between types of fish with heavy metal level evaluated.


   Results Top


Pb concentration in muscle of fish ranged from 1.98 to 2.98 in O. ruber and 2.43–3.12 in L. johni ppm dry wt in this study [Table 1]. Cd concentration ranged from 0.21 to 0.47 ppm dry wt in O. ruber and 0.17–0.38 ppm dry wt in L. johni in this study. No relationship between the fish size and the metal levels for Cd was recorded in all of fish species. The relationship between the fish size and Pb level in the muscles was positive in all species. Concentrations average of cadmium and lead in different fish base on size of Otolithes ruber and Lutjanus johni was showed in [Table 1] and [Table 2] respectively. [Table 3] present the comparison of concentration average of cadmium and lead base on type of fish. The concentrations average of lead in Otolithes ruber is more than Lutjanus johni [Figure 1] and about cadmium, this is reversed [Figure 2].
Table 1: Mean (± SD) concentrations of Cd and Pb (μg/g dry weight) in different fish base on size of O. ruber

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Table 2: Mean (± SD) concentrations of Cd and Pb (μg/g dry weight) in different fish base on size of Lutjanus johni

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Table 3: Concentration of cadmium and lead (μg/g dry weight) base on type of fish

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Figure 1: Mean concentrations of cadmium in different fish

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Figure 2: Mean concentrations of lead in different fish

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   Discussion Top


Muscle tissue is the principal edible fish part and can directly affect human health. For this reason, most rules have established allowable concentration limits for toxic elements in seafood.[21] According to investigations, the metal accumulation in the aquatic organisms could be species-dependent.[22] Pb and Cd belong to nonessential and toxic metals group. The maximum permissible doses for an adult are 3 mg Pb and 0.5 mg Cd/week, but the recommended doses are only one-fifth of those values.[23] These metals have a high potential for bioaccumulation in fish and are accumulated in multiple organs.[24]

Pb value in fish collected from coastal waters of the Caspian Sea was reported 0.001–0.191 μg/g dry wt [25] and <0.001–0.575 μg/g dry wt in muscle of sturgeons.[26] Pb concentrations of fish species of Beyşehir Lake that reported as 0.35, 0.42, and 0.68 mg/kg for Tinca tinca, Leuciscus cephalus and Sander lucioperca, respectively [27],[28] that is higher in compare to this study. Pb level was reported as high as 250 mg/kg in L. cephalus in Kizilirmak River from Turkey by Akbulut.[29] Pb concentrations in all fish specimens of this study exceeded FAO/WHO,[24] IAEA-407,[30] TFC,[31] EC,[32] and Chine [33] but had not exceeded the guidelines limits except for the range of international standards.[34]

Cd content of muscles was lower that reported by Mohammadnabizadeh and Poorkhabaz [21] in Liza Klunzingeri and Sillago Sihama collected from Persian Gulf. Furthermore, it was lower than reported from fish in Densu River, Ghana,[34] and hemichromis fasciatus from Nigeria.[35]

Fish age and size are important parameters when discussing metals accumulation in fish.[36] Reported that most of metals were more accumulated in younger Bartail Flathead, Klunzinger's Mullet, Silver Pomfret, and Silver Sillago.[21] Furthermore, negative correlations between fish size and metal concentrations had been reported due to higher metabolic rates and faster growth than metal accumulation in fish captured from Persian Gulf.[37] According to investigations, the metal accumulation in the aquatic organisms cans species-dependent.[22]


   Conclusion Top


In all samples, Cd level was minimum. Pb concentrations in two fish specimens of this study exceeded FAO/WHO, IAEA-407, TFC, EC, and Chine but had not exceeded the guidelines limits except for the range of international standards. The metal accumulation in the aquatic organism may be species and size-dependent.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Research Deputy of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for approving this project (No: 91270).

Financial support and sponsorship

This study is supported by Research Deputy of University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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Correspondence Address:
Somayeh Bohlouli
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_312_17

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