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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 874-877
The relationship between model of delivery and postpartum depression


1 MA in Clinical Psychology, Moatazedi Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
3 The Martyr Rajai Therapeutic Sanitary Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

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Date of Web Publication5-Oct-2017
 

   Abstract 


Background: Postpartum depression including psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and the time after that can cause the problems in the relations between mother, child, and family and that in the absence of proper attention and treatment in the family caused damage. Due to the sensitive nature of the postpartum period and frequency of this disorder is variable, this research seeks to investigate the relationship between type of delivery and postpartum depression has been done. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study on all pregnant women referred to health centers in Kermanshah in 2013 who were selected by random cluster sampling conducted. Beck depression inventory data-gathering tool included a demographic questionnaire-obstetric data analysis, descriptive, and inferential statistical methods to data using software and by SPSS 19 Chi-square test was examined. Results: The results showed that the mother's age, type of delivery, number of delivery, acceptance, sex, education, and maternal depression after propose relationship are statistically significant (P < 0.5) as well as the prevalence of postpartum depression is 33.4%, respectively, of which 13.8% related to emergency cesarean, 7.2% of vaginal deliveries, and 8% of elective cesarean section (CS). Conclusion: In this study, given that postpartum depression after CS is more than vaginal delivery which is recommended that appropriate advice for choosing the type of delivery and the correct way, according to the mother and baby and avoid perform CSs, and can play an important role in reducing postpartum depression and avoid spending a lot on the ground.

Keywords: Cesarean section, postpartum depression, vaginal delivery

How to cite this article:
Sarah SB, Forozan SP, Leila D. The relationship between model of delivery and postpartum depression. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:874-7

How to cite this URL:
Sarah SB, Forozan SP, Leila D. The relationship between model of delivery and postpartum depression. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 19];10:874-7. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/4/874/215856



   Introduction Top


Women in any society are the main pillars of the family and check their health is also important. Women's health, especially maternal health, is basic concepts of economic development and social welfare, pregnancy is one of the most critical stages of the life of a woman.[1] It was gratifying,[2],[3] however, often filled with stress and with a lot of physiological and psychological changes considered.[4],[5] Women are very vulnerable to mental illness and this leads to a change in women's gender identity during pregnancy,[6],[4] causing confusion and even change the person's identity.[7] Most of the time, the child is stressful factors that trigger the onset depression, depression is the most common mental disorders in adulthood,[8] and the World Health Organization is the world's fourth-largest health urgent problem. In multiple studies, including human life, is considered to be a general problem in almost all countries and cultures can be seen in the way that its prevalence is increasing constantly.[9] It is predicted that in 2020, the second most common disease after cardiovascular disease while 15% of all illnesses are adhered included.[10] So that, one out of every eight people suffering from depression and its incidence in women is almost 2 times.[5],[9] Due to the high prevalence of depression in women than in men can be attributed to factors such as exposure to women with pregnancy-related stress, low social status, learned helplessness, reproductive cycle, and hormonal changes associated with different pressure of contraceptives and birth attributed.[11],[12],[13]

Until now, general agreement on the causes of postpartum depression has been achieved, but a number of predisposing factors of postpartum depression that identify and control the factors they can be involved in the prevention of postpartum depression.[14]

Given the high prevalence of postpartum depression and consequently increase the risk of serious and multilateral it on the mother, child, family, marriage, employment and the impact on society, the influence of family, and community economy should more carefully to this effect thought. Given that risk identification and risk factors of postpartum depression leading to appropriate and timely treatment solution. Therefore, this study effectively measures to improve family health, especially in the target population. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between mode of delivery and postpartum depression so that effective steps should be taken to prevent psychological damage.


   Material and Method Top


The population in this study, all the pregnant women in this city who have given birth in the summer of 1392 and for health care to all health centers in Kermanshah referred, were studied selection centers sampling was performed on selected samples are available respectively.

Results using software SPSS 19 software developed by IMDB corporation, London UK, and descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient and independent t-test and Chi-square test) were analyzed.


   Results Top


Test results showed the mother's age, type of delivery, number of delivery, acceptance, sex, and maternal education with postpartum depression and there is a significant correlation (P < 0.5) and the prevalence of postpartum depression was 33.4% of these, 13.8% related to emergency cesarean, 7.2% of vaginal deliveries, and 8% of elective cesarean section (CS).

Results showed the number of mothers with postpartum depression, and there is a significant correlation with the number of births as a high risk of depression. Findings of Hung et al. confirmed this results.[15] He said that the number of offspring less time leisure spends a result of these factors lead to fatigue his mother and could be prone to postpartum depression.

Furthermore, the age of the mother with postpartum depression was a significant relationship that the results Beck gained the early age just above the mother of the factors of postpartum depression. Stowe possibility is that mothers between the ages due to the use of resources and the importance of prenatal care to be less at risk for postpartum depression.[16]

According to [Table 1]: The results showed that the incidence of postpartum depression associated with the type of delivery, so that kind emergency cesarean because of the urgency with which the psychological and financial stress on the patient and on the other hand lack of preparation and knowledge into patient enough to do this aggressive person is prone to depression after childbirth, and in addition, maternal fetal sex in the research was an important factor in the development of postpartum depression as women who did not like the sex of your baby and also had that lower levels of education were significantly higher rate.
Table 1: Distribution of the frequencsy of depression in terms of delivery

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As 8% and 13.8% of women who underwent elective or emergency CS, they have been affected by postpartum depression. The results of this research with the research Dolatian et al.,[17] Farzad and Ghazi Mirsaeid,[18] Rahmani et al. gained.[19] As the incidence of depression in cesarean group was much higher than the NVD groups.

That it would be due to the stress caused by surgery or cesarean mother's lack of knowledge about the risk of postpartum depression is justifiable. In addition, due to the widespread use natural methods of pain in childbirth reduce the incidence of depression is impressive. This is although Patel et al.[20] studied the association between mode of delivery and postpartum depression did not exist. Sharifi et al.[21] studied vaginal delivery and cesarean mean depression scores between the two groups, he found that there was not statistically significant relationship between them.

The results of this study show that a significant relationship between depression during pregnancy and childbirth there. These results showed that women who have had depression before delivery of interventions such as CS or vaginal delivery and vacuum (P < 0.02). His research results in significant association between depression during pregnancy and childbirth states.

Andersson et al.[22] study results showed that vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery and emergency devices, among women with depressive disorder and nondepressed pregnant women were distributed in the same proportion. In his study, cesarean delivery was more common in pregnant women who were depressed and there was a significant correlation between depression and elective CS.

According to Studies conducted by Wu et al.[23] and Chung et al.[24] Orr et al.[25] and depression during pregnancy was associated with the type of delivery. The results of this study show the mother's age, type of delivery, number of delivery, acceptance, sex, maternal education with postpartum depression and there is a significant correlation (P < 0.5). However, that study showed that any demographic factors associated with depression during pregnancy have not been.

Anderson's study [23] results showed that the individual variables, only the age of the patients under study were significantly associated with depression during pregnancy.


   Discussion and Conclusion Top


In this study, the overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 33.4%, of which 13.8% related to emergency CS, 7.2% related to natural childbirth, and 8% of elective CS. Postpartum depression has multilateral multiple effects on the mother and child, family, marriage, job status. Finally, the impact on the community and contribute to the family economy and society should be more carefully thought to this problem whereas the study of postpartum depression is almost twice, the normal delivery was by CS should be marked as CS as an important risk factor for postpartum depression considered threats. Depending on the type of delivery and appropriate advice to choose the delivery method is compatible to the mother and baby and avoid CSs can be effective in reducing postpartum depression and to avoid spending a lot on this ground based on the results to CS as a serious risk factor for postpartum depression should be considered. And, detailed consultation before delivery and the necessary training during pregnancy, the mother helped in the selection of the correct way as well as cesarean delivery complications and heavy costs avoided.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

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Georgiopoulos AM, Bryan TL, Wollan P, Yawn BP. Routine screening for postpartum depression. J Fam Pract 2001;50:117-22.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Mckee MD, Cunningham M, Jankowski KR, Zayas L. Health-related functional status in pregnancy: Relationship to depression and social support in a multi-ethnic population. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:988-93.  Back to cited text no. 2
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Pour LK, Bakhshani N, Abadi HS, Reza SA, Zadeh SA. Postpartum depression and related factors: A 4.5 months study. J Fundam Ment Health 2012;13:404-12.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Cunningham FG, Kenneth KJ, Health JC, Jako M, Saliman R. Williams Obstetrics. 22th ed. New York: McGrow-Hill; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Wisner KL, Parry BL, Piontek CM. Clinical practice. Postpartum depression. N Engl J Med 2002;347:194-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.
Akiskal HS. Mood disorders: Historical introduction and conceptual overview. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, editors. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. p. 1559.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Takeuchi DT, Chung RC, Lin KM, Shen H, Kurasaki K, Chun CA, et al. Lifetime and twelve-month prevalence rates of major depressive episodes and dysthymia among Chinese Americans in Los Angeles. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:1407-14.  Back to cited text no. 10
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Parry BL, Newton RP. Chronobiological basis of female-specific mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;25 5 Suppl: S102-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Oakley Browne MA, Joyce PR, Wells JE, Bushnell JA, Hornblow AR. Disruptions in childhood parental care as risk factors for major depression in adult women. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1995;29:437-48.  Back to cited text no. 13
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Hasanzahraei R, Asadolahi GH, Dost BN, Dost KM. Factors with postpartum depression in women referring to health centers in Isfahan in 1997. J Sch Nurs Midwifery 2014;12:50-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Hung CH, Lin CJ, Stocker J, Yu CY. Predictors of postpartum stress. J Clin Nurs 2011;20:666-74.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Beck CT. Predictors of postpartum depression: An update. Nurs Res 2001;50:275-85.  Back to cited text no. 16
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17.
Dolatian M, Maziar P, Alavi Majd H, Yazdjerdi M. The relationship between mode of delivery and post partum depression. J Reprod Infertil 2006;7:260-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Rahmani F, Seyedfatemi N, Asadollahi M, Seyedrasooli A. Predisposing factors for postpartum depression in nursing. J Iran 2011;24:60-86.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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21.
Sharifi KH, Soki Z, Akbari H, Sharifi M. The relationship between mode of delivery and postpartum depression. Feyz J Kashan Univ Med Sci 2007;12:50-5.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Andersson L, Sundström-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Wulff M, Bondestam K, åStröm M. Point prevalence of psychiatric disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy: A population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:148-54.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
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Chung TK, Lau TK, Yip AS, Chiu HF, Lee DT. Antepartum depressive symptomatology is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Psychosom Med 2001;63:830-4.  Back to cited text no. 24
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Orr ST, James SA, Blackmore Prince C. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and spontaneous preterm births among African-American women in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:797-802.  Back to cited text no. 25
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Correspondence Address:
Soheil Baigi Sarah
Moatazedi Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_236_17

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