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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 914-919
Compare the social skills, behavioral disorders and loneliness and despair feelings of hearing impaired children with low vision children of Urmia city


Department of Psychology, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran

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Date of Web Publication5-Oct-2017
 

   Abstract 


Purpose: The aim of this research was to compare the skills of social, behavioral disorders and feelings of loneliness and despair of hearing-impaired children with low vision children of Uremia city in April and May of 2016. Methodology: The research method is causal comparative. The statistical population consists of all hearing-impaired and low vision children of Uremia city, who are studying in schools for exceptional children (32 visually impaired children and 32 children with loss hearing). In this research, the availability sampling is used. Matson Social Skills Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist Questionnaire Aachen Bach, the Questionnaire loneliness feelings of Usher Wheeler and the Questionnaires of disappointment in children of Kazdan et al. have been used for data collection. In order to data analyzing in addition to use, descriptive statistics t-test of two independent groups is used. Findings: The findings showed that the average of social skills-impaired children is significantly better than the hearing-impaired students and behavioral disorders and feelings of loneliness and hopelessness in children with low hearing significantly more than low seeing children. Hence, with considering this point that social skills in hearing-impaired children is lower than low vision children, and in addition, improving social skills reduces behavioral disorders, loneliness feelings, disappointments in children. Conclusion: Therefore, the use of effective strategies for improving social skills, especially in hearing-impaired children is important.

Keywords: Behavioral disorders, frustration, hearing impaired, loneliness, social skills, visually impaired

How to cite this article:
Sabet M, Dioulagh AS. Compare the social skills, behavioral disorders and loneliness and despair feelings of hearing impaired children with low vision children of Urmia city. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:914-9

How to cite this URL:
Sabet M, Dioulagh AS. Compare the social skills, behavioral disorders and loneliness and despair feelings of hearing impaired children with low vision children of Urmia city. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Sep 21];10:914-9. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/4/914/215863



   Introduction Top


Hearing is one of the most important human senses, and hearing damage affects a lot of human adaptation to the environment. Moreover, it causes delays in the development of mental processes.[1],[2] Halahan and Kaufman [2] believe that hearing-impaired person refers to someone who in general, uses from his/her remaining hearing sense by utilizing hearing aids in the perception and processing of information.

Results of various studies have shown poor social skills, social relations problems, poor self-concept, behavioral, emotional disorders, and academic problems in children and adolescents who suffering from hearing damages.[3] As well as researchers and scholars state that amount of egocentric, stubborn, depression, anxiety, pessimism, and introversion in deaf adolescents is higher than normal. and their expectations from people and their living environments are too much (Babaee et al., 2007).[4]

The researchers by research on the deaf people concluded that since the deaf and hard of hearing people pay more attention to visual cues may seem cynical and impudent and become more isolated.[5]

Since the blind and visually impaired students have problems in acquiring social behavior through visual cues, model making, mode of expression, association look through, get feedback and the ability to locate people may not have acquired social skills as well.[6]

Different studies have known the main problems of blind children as distraction, bullying, fights with people, interrupted the conversation of others, anger and wrath, weaknesses in communication, academic failure, lack of job opportunities and inability to hold a job, lack of financial security, and personal and social dependence.[7],[8] It is obvious that children are exposed to various mental illnesses. One of the most important diseases that occur for various reasons is the feelings of depression, loneliness and despair. Loneliness causes low mood, self-centeredness, lack of emotional self-regulation, and lack of response to fairly predictable events. Despair is a collection of negative stereotypes that people have about themselves and also about their future that damages person's self-concept and social competence.[9] Disabilities have a negative impact on a person's level of hope. The hope is the symbol of mental health and ability to believe to feel better about the future. However, despair is the opposing point of the hope. The researchers believed that the person first frustrated then depressed. Despair has negative impacts on health and social communication and is a factor risk for depression and suicide. Therefore, according to the role of hearing and vision damages on social skills, mental disorders, loneliness, and despair, this study investigates and compares social skills, behavioral disorders and feelings of loneliness and despair in low vision children with low hearing children in Urmia city and gives answer to this question: What difference exists between social skills, behavioral disorders and feelings of loneliness and despair of visually impaired children with hearing impaired children of Uremia city?.

Research hypotheses

  1. Social skills are different among low vision with low hearing children
  2. Behavioral disorders are different among low vision with low hearing children
  3. Loneliness feelings are different among low vision with low hearing children
  4. Feelings of hopelessness are different among low vision with low hearing children.



   Methodology Top


The research method is causal comparative. The statistical population consists of all hearing-impaired and low vision children of Uremia city, who are studying in schools for exceptional children (32 visually impaired children and 32 children with loss hearing). In this research, the availability sampling is used. Matson Social Skills Questionnaire, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire Aachen Bach, the Questionnaire loneliness feelings of Usher Wheeler and the Questionnaires of disappointment in children of Kazdan et al. have been used to data collection. T-test in two independent groups is used in order to data analyzing in addition to use descriptive statistics. The findings showed that the average of social skills-impaired children significantly better than the hearing-impaired students and behavioral disorders and feelings of loneliness and hopelessness in children with low hearing significantly more than low seeing children. Hence, with considering this point that social skills in hearing-impaired children are lower than low vision children, and in addition, improving social skills reduces behavioral disorders, loneliness feelings, and disappointments in children. Therefore, the use of effective strategies for improving social skills, especially in hearing-impaired children is important.


   Results Top


Reviewing frequency distribution low vision children as separately of their ages shows that 68.8% of them are <10 years old and the most frequency related to subjects with 10 years old that are 9 of them have low vision children. Reviewing frequency distribution of low vision children as separately of their gender shows that 46.9% of them are females and 53.1% of them are males. Reviewing frequency distribution of low hearing children as separately of their ages shows that most of them are more than 8 years old with the frequency of 7 individuals, and then, 9 and 11 years old each with 6 individuals are at the top of age categories. Reviewing frequency distribution of low hearing children as separately of their gender shows that 65.6% of them are females and 34.4% of them are males.

Statistical indicators of the research variables

Descriptive statistics indicators of mean and standard deviation for scales and subscales of research in the groups of low vision and low hearing are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: The mean and standard deviation in subscale of the study in two groups

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The Inferential Findings

The fitness test of normal distribution (k-s test)

According to the [Table 2] can be see that for variables of behavioral problems, for variables of behavioral problems, social skills and self-esteem, the significance of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (Z) is bigger than error level of 5% (P ≥ 0.05; significant). It means that statistical distribution of observations in the variables of behavioral disorders, social skills, loneliness, and feelings of hopelessness in the low vision and low hearing groups is normal by 95% confidence, and the null hypothesis is confirmed. Also since the variables of behavioral disorders and social skills are a linear combination of related subscales resulted that statistical distribution of each subscales are normal and there is no need to k-s test for subscales. Hence, prerequisite that normality parametric tests (normality) are the statistical distribution of variables is established.
Table 2: Results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

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First hypothesis

Social skills differ among hearing impaired children with low vision children in Urmia.

To test the first hypothesis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is used. Levene's test results are presented in [Table 3], any of under investigation variables is not statistically significant (P ≥ 0.05; significant). Hence, the hypothesis of homogeneity of variances was approved.
Table 3: Levene's test for investigating homogeneity of variance in the scale of social skills

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Results of significant tests of MANOVA in [Table 4] show that significance level of test is smaller than 5% error level (F = 219.034, Wilks's lambda = 0.053, P ≤ 0.05; significant). It means at least in one of the subscales of social skills, there is a significant level between low hearing and low vision children.
Table 4: Results of significant tests of multivariate analysis of variance for the first hypothesis

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Given that significant tests multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was meaningful this means that at least one of the subscales of social skills in children with hearing impaired and low vision group had meaningful difference. This means that at least one of the subscales of social skills in children with hearing loss and low vision group had meaningful difference. The results of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) in [Table 5] shows that for all three subscales of social skills the significance level is smaller than the 5% level (P-value=sig>0.05).
Table 5: Results of multivariate analysis of variance test for the first hypothesis

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That means that there are significant differences between the hearing impaired and visually impaired children in terms of social skills, as statistical indicators in [Table 5] shows average working, average firmness and restraint average of visually impaired children is more than children with hearing impaired children. As a result, the first hypothesis is confirmed. As a result, the first hypothesis is confirmed.

Second hypothesis

Behavioral disorders among hard of hearing children with low vision children in Uremia are different.

To test the second hypothesis, MANOVA is used. Levene's test results in [Table 6] show that about any of the variables of the research is not statistically significant (P ≥ 0.05; significant). Hence, the assumption of homogeneity of variance was approved.
Table 6: Levene's test for homogeneity of variance subscales of behavioral disorders

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Results of significant tests of MANOVA in [Table 7] show that the significance level of test is smaller than 5% error level (F = 269.045, Wilks's = 0.159, P ≤ 0.159; Significant). It means that at least in one of the subscales of behavioral disorders between low hearing and low vision children, there is significant difference.
Table 7: Results of significant test of multivariate analysis of variance for the second hypothesis

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Given that significant tests MANOVA was meaningful. This means that at least one of the subscales of social skills in children with hearing loss and low vision group had meaningful difference. The results of MANOVA in [Table 8] show that for all subscales of behavioral disorders, the significance level is smaller than the 5% level (P ≥ 0.05; significant).
Table 8: Results of multivariate analysis of variance test for second hypothesis

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This means that there are significant differences between the hearing impaired and visually impaired children in terms of social skills, as statistical indicators in [Table 8] shows average subscales of behavioral disorders of children with hearing impaired are more than visually impaired children. As a result, the first hypothesis is confirmed.

Third hypothesis

Loneliness sense of hard of hearing children is different with impaired children in Uremia.

To perform this test, Student's t-test two-sample test assuming can be used independently. As can be seen in [Table 9] Significance level is equal to 0.001, as a result the null hypothesis is rejected strongly, as a result there is considerable difference between the loneliness of hearing impaired children with vision impaired children and can say the value of loneliness of l hearing impaired children with vision impaired children is not at one level. However, according to the value of the observed mean, the loneliness of low hearing children (52.14) and the loneliness of low vision children (71.44) resulted that low hearing children in comparison with low vision children feel more lonely, according to used Asher and Viler questionnaires lower scores indicating more loneliness, of the respondent individual and vice versa.
Table 9: Student's t-test lonely of hard of hearing children with low impaired children

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Fourth hypothesis

Feelings of hopelessness in hard of hearing children with vision-impaired children in Uremia are different.

To perform this test, Student's t-test two-sample test assuming can be used independently. As can be seen in [Table 10] significance level is equal to 0.001, and confidence interval related to mean includes not zero; as a result there is considerable difference between the hopeless sense of low hearing children with low vision children and can say the value of hopeless of low hearing children with low vision children is not at one level. However, according to the value of the observed mean, the loneliness of low hearing children (14.08) and the loneliness of low vision children (2) resulted that low hearing children in comparison with low vision children feel more hopeless.
Table 10: Student's t-test for hopeless sense of hard of hearing children with low impaired children

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   Discussion and Conclusion Top


The aim of this research was to compare the skills of social, behavioral disorders, and feelings of loneliness and despair of hearing-impaired children with low vision children of Uremia city, in April and May of 2016. Results showed that there is significant difference between amounts of social skills of low hearing children with low vision children, and the level of social skills in low vision children is better than low hearing children. These findings are consistent with results of Biabangard,[10] Babirshat (1991), and Beryan (2000). In explaining the reasons for the difference between the social skills among children of visually impaired and hearing impaired, in explaining the reason for difference between the value of social skills between hearing and vision impaired children we can say that social skills have different aspects including sufficient social skills, nonsocial behaviors, aggressive and impulsive behavior, domination, having great confidence in the relationship with peers that in the dimensions of appropriate social skills and peer relationships, and a lot of supremacy and confidence clearly visually impaired children have better status in comparison with low hearing children. In dimensions of non-social behaviors and aggression, impulsive behavior scale that hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, visually impaired children easily communicate with ordinary people. However, hearing-impaired children have no great desire to communicate with ordinary people. The findings of research indicate that there is a significant difference between the amounts of behavioral disorders in low vision children with hard of hearing children. Moreover, we can say that low hearing children are at more risk to behavioral disorders than low vision children. These findings are consistent with findings of Biabangard E, Karimi Darmani HR, Bahador Motlagh Gh, et al., Bishop DV. and Qaderi S.[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] In explaining the reasons for the difference between behavioral disorders and hearing impaired children in general studies showing that social skills have significant impact on reducing behavioral disorders. Moreover, more and better social skills behavioral problems will be less. and since social skills of visually impaired students, is more than students with hearing impairment as a result, disorders and behavioral problems in them is less than hearing-impaired students. As a result, disorders and behavioral problems in them is less than hearing-impaired students. Therefore, it is essential to provide opportunities and activities that hearing-impaired children actively participate in learning social skills in order that their mental deficiencies and behavioral problems of them reduced by acquiring further of that. The findings show that there is significant difference between loneliness levels of visually impaired children with hearing-impaired children and we can say loneliness in children hard of hearing with low vision impaired children is not on the same level, but it is concluded that hearing impaired children in comparison with low vision children feel more loneliness. These findings are more consistent with results of Qaderi S, Salehi L, et al., Samarin N, Shahim S and Ranjbar J, et al.[14],[15],[16],[17],[18] To explain the reason of these findings, we can say that competence and social skills are the main predictors of loneliness in children. And it is expected that as a deficiency in social skills in children with hearing-impaired to children with low vision to experience even more lonely.

The results of study indicate that there is a significant difference between the levels of frustration of hearing-impaired children with visually impaired children. And concluded that children with hearing loss are more disappointed than visually impaired children. These findings are consistent with findings of Motihi G, Shafiee Z, et al. and Noranfar S, et al.[19],[20],[21] To explain reason of these findings, to explain reason of these findings we can say that results that demonstrate a frustration difference in the visually impaired and hearing impaired children influenced by different factors that taken into consideration in the conducted researches. One of the effective factors in this context is the relationship of loneliness and frustration in children. Loneliness feeling in children with hearing loss and frustration as well as the amount is greater than visually impaired children. Another effective factor focuses on being social of children suffering from low vision to the hearing-impaired children. As a result, the loneliness and frustration sense in hearing-impaired children is more than children of visually impaired. In general, feelings of loneliness and frustration and social skills are components associated with each other that effective impact of them is undeniable that social skills reduce feelings of loneliness and despair and depression. Visually impaired children have more desirable situation than hearing-impaired children.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

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Biabangard E. Social skills compared to female students blind, deaf and normal in Tehran. Journal of research in the field of exceptional children 2005;5:14-21.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Bishop DV. Ten questions about terminology for children with unexplained language problems. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2014;49:381-415.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Qaderi S. The Relationship between Attachment Style, Social Skills and Alone among the Students, Not Print a Master's Thesis, University of Al-Zahra; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Salehi L, Seif D. Predicted pattern of loneliness on the basis of teacher interaction with students and perception of competence among adolescents with and without visual impairment. Psychol Except 2011;5:64-43.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Samarin N. Compared the loneliness deaf students with their normal counterparts in the city of Ahvaz. J Except Educ 2006;62:3-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Shahim S. Evaluation of social skills in a group of educable mentally retarded children using the rating system social skills and psychology at Tehran University, Journal of Psychology and Educational Sciences 1999;4:18-37.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Ranjbar J, Tarkhan M, Taher M, Khanzadeh H, Eisapour A. The Effect of Communication Skills Training on Self-concept and Feelings of Loneliness Students with Hearing Damage; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Motihi G. The Effect of Coping Therapy on Loneliness, Despair and Disbelief in Kermanshah Women Coping Strategies, Not Print a Master's Thesis, PNU; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Noranfar S, Khanjani Z. Social Skills with anxiety and depression relationship defect in children 7-12 years old; Education Journal 2014; 5:12-26.  Back to cited text no. 21
    

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Correspondence Address:
Ali Shaker Dioulagh
Department of Psychology, Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_248_17

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]



 

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