| Abstract|| |
Background and Purpose: The research aimed to investigate the effect of kabaddi local game reducing the percentage and severity of stuttering among girls 7–11 years old in the city of Saravan. Material and Method: The population consisted of 23 students from Saravan city primary schools in the 1395–2015 school years, of which twenty as the sample size using nonrandom sampling method selected purposefully. The method used in this study is a quasi-experimental and pre- and post-test control group so that the effect 8-week kabaddi game in both group intensity and frequency of symptoms of stutter were measured. Results: To measure the frequency and severity of symptoms of childhood stuttering, stuttering tests and tests to measure the severity of stuttering were used. First, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test to determine the normality of data distribution and equal variances was used to examine Levine. Then, to test hypotheses, parametric t-paired test to determine intergroup differences between pre- and post-test groups and parametric t-independent test to determine differences between groups in pre- and post-test were used. After running 8 weeks in three sessions per week kabaddi game for half an hour each time, the frequency and severity of symptoms stutter were measured again. The results showed that children with stuttering in two training groups and controlling for age, severity, and the percentage of stuttered were homogeneous and uniform because the comparison mentioned in the pre-test variables was not significant. Conclusion: The difference between mean changes severity and the percentage of children stutter that exercise in control groups was not statistically significant.
Keywords: Kabaddi group game, respiratory volumes, slurred speech
|How to cite this article:|
Sepahi S. Investigating kabaddi group game on reducing percentage and severity of stuttering in female children 7–11 years. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:939-43
|How to cite this URL:|
Sepahi S. Investigating kabaddi group game on reducing percentage and severity of stuttering in female children 7–11 years. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 14];10:939-43. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/4/939/215869
| Introduction|| |
One of the most common and most complex speech disorders that fits its intensity and complications caused by the individual's personal and social life varying degrees in turmoil and worries and causing damage in how to communicate with other people is the stuttering process. Stuttering is a complex phenomenon of psychomotor extraordinary that in the normal process of speech, one finds and the turbulence in the flow of verbal expression (repeat, stopping, and pulling involuntary prophecy) determined.
The prevalence of stuttering in communities around 5% about 70%–80% of these cases has no specific treatment to recover. Moreover, 20% of them stuttering become stable (Bahrami, 2012). Methods of the treatment of stuttering are included the directly and indirectly one. Previous results show that the indirect method is more appropriate because it creates awareness of consequences such as anxiety, stress. Also, anxiety will lead to the negative effects of disruptive factors in the treatment and can increase the severity of stuttering.
Therefore, it is recommended the child's awareness and sensitivity of its stay at the same level. One of the ways to implement indirect ways, is increasing coordination between the systems in speech, games that increases breathing capacity (such as Zhu games, inflatable balloons, trumpet, harmonica).
Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder through involuntary interruption in the flow of speech is determined, and there are different types of this disorder often begins in childhood and prevalence is about 72% estimated in some studies. In most cases, it is due to neurological offer. Because stuttering is an involuntary and affects a person's social relevance, so it has negative effects on mental health and emotional. Recent studies show that stuttering is correlated with high levels of social anxiety. In addition, adults with stuttering are at higher risk of negative experience with social and mental health. For example, they may have shown during stuttering, and also, experience problems at work back stutter their experience. Above shows that many stutterers may have lower quality of life than other people.
Estimating the quality of life is depend on a wide range of issues such as satisfaction of their communication capabilities, life satisfaction, health and her understanding of its ability to achieve goals in life. However, researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in communication disorders have noted the importance of quality of life; unfortunately, research on quality of life in the realm of stuttering, only in recent years, has been considered. Klamps and Ross in 2004, the quality of life in a small group of adults with stuttering using multidimensional measurements such as jobs, self-esteem, marital status, family status, and emotional and social functioning was evaluated. They found, that stutter does not seem to effect on the quality of family, but this people has a negative impact on self-esteem and emotional stability.
In 2009, Craig, tested the 200 adults who had stutter and 200 adults with natural speech to compare the quality of life related to health. The results of this study show that stuttering performance on social, emotional, vitality, and mental health has a negative impact. In this regard, Jaros in 2010, the quality of life of people with stuttering before and after polishing treatment and the results of this observation suggests that stuttering may be beyond the ability of individuals to affect the production of words with fluency and appropriate rhythm. In addition, a wide due to the effects of this disorder can have on quality of life; outcome must be something more than a mere assessment of changes in speech fluency. In our country, due to cultural differences, need to be clarified in terms of quality of life for people with PWS, especially health-related quality of life. This study was conducted as a step in the treatment of stuttering at the beginning of his appearance is removed. The treatment of stuttering in childhood demonstrates greater success. After primary school age the resistance to treatment increases. On the other hand, this is a new work, has already been done, and can be a step toward improving the quality of life for most children stuttering and success in later life and adults.
Theoretical foundation: Investigating the causes and treatment of stuttering
Speech is a series of quick movements of speech limbs, the speech should be done in milliseconds till the listener receives the message correctly. Developmental stuttering is a speech fluency disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population (Bahrami, 2012). Since stutter as move symptoms is very similar to movement disorders such as Tourette's syndrome, Dystonia, and Parkinson's disease, so stutter as a motor disorder is considered a single cause that has been identified and specified in relation to it.
In recent years, the theory of neurological and neuromotor ihas gain more attention. And researchers believe that developmental stuttering is a neurological disorder. A study conducted by Sommer et al. (2002) indicates that stuttering is a brain disorder and neural stem is unknown, but various theories have been proposed in this regard. In this context, signs of hemispheric asymmetry, abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, bad supplement, and coordinate action in the cerebellum and motor cortex function have shown, and poor performance views that the basal ganglia are associated with stuttering and is not new but related to about 1920.
Stuttering is one of several mental disorders in which a person's speech remains and becomes chronic. The starting ratio of this problem in boys are more than girls and the percentage of recovery are in girls is more than boys. Male to female ratio is 4:1. Various kinds of stuttering consists of: repeated involuntary sounds or syllables or pulling is usually at the beginning of the word or obstruction and sudden stop telling limb,” is known (m m machine). This repetition and drag the words often associated with adverse behavior and the frequent occurrence of stuttering is called. Along with other speech disorders, stuttering usually has the following symptoms: alternating repetition of sounds, syllables, words, and phrases repeated syllables so that the sound of “Ouh” in the word will be replaced by the correct sound. Shake the muscles around the mouth and jaw during speech volume increases during the pulling of tension and scramble when certain words do not express a sudden stop or delay the expression of specific words in the speech organs of speech sounds.
Lily  conducted a study entitled “Effect of exercise on clinical and spirometric indices protests asthmatic patients”. The results showed that the paired testing exercise is effective in increasing the respiratory condition score signs and symptoms of asthma such as shortness of breath, shortness of breath, cough and… significantly reduced due to the effectiveness of exercise in improving symptoms and spirometric indices, and improvement of pulmonary function in asthmatic patients is recommended sport as a complementary medication and asthma treatment should be used to promote progress.
Derakhshanpoor  investigated the effect of learning a second language on self-esteem and stuttering. He found that the learning a second language specially in children, has a significant effect on improving the stuttering and increasing the self-esteem. Their self-esteem has been rising during training. Bahrami (2011) in the research entitled “Speech to the attention of dependency in children and adolescents with developmental stuttering”* Run through the method of measurement is dependent using available sampling and detection of a speech therapist, thirty persons help students 13–8 years developmental stuttered of schools were selected. The research tools include a text to read, a device for recording the speech, and stuttering severity instrument scale, respectively. The test is performed based on two methods including: just reading text and reading the text with a finger tapping. The collected data were analyzed using t-test. Results showed that the severity of stuttering in dual-task conditions (divided attention) increased. Naderi (2011) research on forty stuttering and forty nonstuttering children, the results of the study showed the Persian version of the childhood stuttering test; the validity and reliability of the Persian version is acceptable for children.
Mahdieh  presented a research entitled “Impact of rhetorical method in reducing symptoms of stuttering”. In this study, the efficacy in reducing symptoms of stuttering was rhetorical. The findings indicate that education rhetoric is effective in reducing the four areas of the symptoms of stuttering. Hence, aerobic exercise to increase lung volume and improving respiratory function included, and an important cause of stuttering is low lung volumes. Thus, this therapy can be used alongside other therapies. Given with physical activity and maintaining a healthy body, students also divine duty toward your body, in worship, work and serve their community achieved more success. With a good training program in various skills and motor sport, it can be physical benefits such as reduced heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness promotion, optimal setting metabolism, increase range of motion, and increase muscle strength and endurance and won the students.
- First hypothesis: Average change variable stuttering severity in children with stuttering in the control and experiment groups was not significant
- Second hypothesis: Average change variable percentage of stuttering in children with stuttering in control and experiment groups was not significant.
| Research Methodology|| |
The study is quasi-experimental and control group with pre- and post-test. The population of this study included 23 students with stuttering in all elementary schools in Saravan city in the 1395–2015 school years that includes 12 schools.
Accessible and purposeful sampling, twenty of whom are nonrandomly selected as participants and randomly divided into two groups of ten control and training. To measure the frequency and severity of symptoms of childhood stuttering, tests measure the severity of stuttering were used. All data are expressed as standard deviation (mean ± SD).
First, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to determine the normal distribution of data, and Levene's test was used to assess equal variances. Then, to test hypotheses, parametric t-paired test for intergroup differences between pre- and post-test groups and parametric t-paired test to determine differences between groups in pre- and post-test were used. The significance level for all calculations P < 0.05 was considered, and all the calculations with the SPSS20 software developed by IBM Corporation in London version were conducted.
In [Table 1], descriptive features of participants and variables between the two groups in pre- and post-test are provided. The results of statistical tests of Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Levene showed that the study has a normal distribution and its variance is homogeneous. Descriptive statistical analysis of age (P = 0.82 and t = 0.22) revealed a significant difference between the exercise and control. It also compares the variables of intensity (P = 0.99 and t = 0.01), and the percentage of stuttered (P = 0.94 and t = 0.07) in the pre-test was not significant. Therefore, children with stuttering in training and control groups in terms of age, stuttering severity, and rate of homogenization were the same.
| Results|| |
The first hypothesis
Average change variable stuttering severity in children with stuttering in the experiment and control groups was not significant. [Table 3] and [Figure 2] compare results (means change variable stuttering percentage of children with stuttering) between the groups (experiment and control). Independent t-test results of both strains showed a significant difference between children with stuttering, stuttering severity variable changes in exercise, and control groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.34 and t = 0.00). The fifth hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the average variable stuttering severity in children with stuttering in the experiment and control groups is confirmed.
|Table 3: The mean change in variable stuttering percentage of children with stuttering (P≤0.05)|
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|Figure 2: The mean change in variable stuttering percentage of children with stuttering in experiment and control groups|
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[Figure 1] compares the average change variable stuttering severity in children with stuttering in the experiment and control groups.
|Figure 1: Compares the average change variable stuttering severity in children with stuttering in the experiment and control groups|
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The second hypothesis
Average variable percentage of children with stuttering in experiment and control groups was not significant. [Table 2] and [Figure 1] compare the results (mean variable stuttering severity in children with stuttering) between the groups (training and control groups). Independent t-test results showed that the two strains stuttering is a significant difference between the percentage of children with stuttering variable in terms of experiment and control groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.15 and t = 1.50).
|Table 2: The mean change in children with stuttering, stuttering severity variable (P≤0.05)|
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The sixth hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the average variable stuttering percentage of children with stuttering in experiment and control groups is confirmed.
[Figure 2] shows the mean change in variable stuttering percentage of children with stuttering in experiment and control groups.
| Discussion and Conclusion|| |
The first and second hypothesis research results showed that children with stuttering in two experiment and control in term of age and severity of stuttering were homogeneous and uniform because the comparison mentioned in the pre-test variables was not significant.
The difference between mean changes severity and the percentage of children who stutter in experiment and control groups was not statistically significant. Pashoh (2005) evaluation of the efficacy in clinical and spontaneous recovery in stuttering intervention for children with speech disfluencies revealed that clinical methods are more effective than spontaneous recovery. Therefore, according to the impact of sports and play physical, emotional, and social skills of children, in combination with other methods of treatment of stuttering or without combination, it can be synchronized with other methods to improve child growth and increased confidence he would be of great importance.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Faculty Member of Higher Education Complex, Saravan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]