|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 1333-1340
|Investigating the relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational changes in the nursing managers of hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2015
Sara Moradpour1, Heidar Ali Abedi2, Ahmad Bahonar3
1 BSc, MSc Student Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2 BSc, MSc, PhD and Professor in Nursing, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
3 MD, PHD Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
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|Date of Web Publication||6-Nov-2017|
| Abstract|| |
Background and Objectives: Change is the only solution for today's organizations. The organization as a social entity is both affected from and affecting the environment. To change the organization, people should change. Involving people in the management of the organization is effective in reducing the resistance to change. Strategies used to change attitudes, behaviors, and recognition of the individuals resulting in their success lie in leadership. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational change in nursing managers. Materials and Methods: This study being a descriptive correlational study used Houghton and Neck's standard self-leadership questionnaire with 35 questions and reliability of 94% as well as resistance to organizational change scale of Wayne and Andy with twenty questions and reliability of 84% to collect the data. Content and face validities of the research tools were determined through the study of theoretical foundations as well as the opinions of professors and specialists. The population (250 people) included all nursing managers (matrons, supervisors, and head nurses) of educational centers of Isfahan in 2015. One hundred and fifty-six individuals were selected through the available sampling out of the 250 people of the population (males and females). Data analysis was conducted by SPSS software, version 22; in addition, statistical tests of Pearson, t-test, variance analysis, regression model, and Mann–Whitney tests were used. Results: In general, the average rating of the research units is above average (54.0 + 3.88) in self-leadership questionnaire of nursing managers. Besides, the amount of resistance to change in 92.2% of nursing managers is at average level. The findings also showed that there is a positive relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational change (P < 0.001, r = 0.310) and the score of self-leadership increases with the increase in job experience (P = 0.049, r = 0.154). It was observed that with the increase in age and job experiences, the resistance to organizational change also increases in nursing managers (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In this study, resistance to organizational change was at an average level with respect to the self-leadership of the managers. Increase in age and experience of nursing managers is associated with self-leadership and resistance to change. Thus, to move toward positive and useful changes in the organization and achieve noble objectives in educational centers, it is important to attract and guide the behavior of experienced managers and increase their knowledge of organizational behavior to reduce the resistance to organizational changes.
Keywords: Organizational change, resistance to organizational change, self-leadership
|How to cite this article:|
Moradpour S, Abedi HA, Bahonar A. Investigating the relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational changes in the nursing managers of hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2015. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1333-40
|How to cite this URL:|
Moradpour S, Abedi HA, Bahonar A. Investigating the relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational changes in the nursing managers of hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2015. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 12];10:1333-40. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/5/1333/217505
| Introduction|| |
The present era is an industrial, knowledge-based, fast, innovative, and changing era. Organizations are increasingly faced with dynamic and changing environments. Regarding the accelerated pace of scientific, technological, social, and cultural changes, it can be realized that the success of the organizations is associated with the developments of modern society, their abilities in the prediction of the changing path of the future, and their capabilities in directing the changes to create favorable developments for a better future.
Basically, the era of authoritarianism and totalitarianism in organizations is over and managers tend to delegate authorities and responsibilities, establish teams, and Make flexibilities. Willingness to share power and responsibilities of the effective leaders will empower employees. The leadership style of the so-called employee-oriented managers seems to encourage employees rather than controlling them. They try to be friendly and establish a relationship based on respect and mutual trust with the staffs and employees, while also allowing their employees to have a role in decision-making that affects their destiny and career. The results show that leadership is the most important issue in the field of organizational behavior and human relations. Accordingly, groups and organizations considered leadership as a means to effectiveness. People gradually found that leaders in certain types of jobs are successful while in others are not. Psychologists concluded that effective leadership is not only related to the individual characteristics of leaders but also to the nature of the situation in which leaders and subordinates interact as well as the needs and characteristics of the followers.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Review of literature
Investigating the studies conducted on the research area of this study, among the available and existing resources, some works were discovered in relation to this issue both inside the country and abroad. Yilmaz et al. studied the effect of change management on the attitude of the Turkish security managers. The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the way of implementing management practices used during the process of changing to guide positive attitude of the staff. The results assert methods such as informing employees about the way of being adapt to the changes, consulting them, and maintaining the involvement of them in change process. This means that an organization through advices agrees with supporting the concepts of change. Since the beginning of the process, staff should properly be involved and consulted and should be committed to change and sustainability. In a research by Dolbier et al. (2001) in the University of Texas in the United States, the relationship between self-leadership (self-management) and psychological health status was evaluated. The outcomes indicated that self-leadership is strongly related to job satisfaction, strong communication, quality management, effective working relationships, employee health, well-being, and reduction of work stress. Politis  investigated the effect of self-leadership strategies within the dimensions of entrepreneurship, creativity and productivity, and psychometric properties of measuring self-leadership instruments which are relatively new. The results showed that the second element of the strategies focusing on self-leadership has a strong effect on attempt to entrepreneurship which in turn enhances creativity and productivity. Besides, natural reward strategies did not have any effect on entrepreneurship. Therefore, for training and recruitment of staff, organizations need strategies to reinforce positive-desired behavior such as self-goal setting, self-observation, self-rewarding, self-punishment, and self-efficacy so that innovation, creativity, and productivity are increased. Elloy  examined relationships between self-leadership and organizational behavior (including trust, monitoring, decision-making, criticism and recommendations, and goal-setting team) in the atmosphere of self-management working groups. The results showed that self-leadership promotes creative performance, more sense of confidence, better communication in the groups, more accurate group decision-making, and more active development of self-management in working groups.
The research methodology used in this study was descriptive and correlational. The study population included managers, supervisors, and matrons (nursing managers) working in public hospitals of Isfahan. Two hundred and fifty people made of 156 male and 94 female nursing managers from various hospitals were selected as samples of the study. Searching units were selected among different parts of teaching hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and had the necessary qualifications to meet the research purposes. Public hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences are Al-Zahra, Imam Hussein, Imam Musa Kazim, Amin, Chamran, Sayyid al-Shuhada, Isa ibn Maryam, Farabi, Faiz, Kashani, Noor, and Hazrat-e-Ali. Data collection was based on sampling method.
The data collection tools in this study were questionnaires. Considering the descriptive nature of the research, books, theses, and articles were studied and there was consultation with supervisor. According to the conditions of the study and the research population, 156 questionnaires were obtained with relentless pursuit out of the 200 distributed questionnaires. The first part of the questionnaire included personal and demographic samples: gender, age, marital status, education, managerial work experiences, nonmanagerial work experiences, organizational position, and type of hospital. The data were collected from different sectors using standard questionnaires of Houghton and Neck's self-leadership and Wayn and Andy's resistance to change.
Houghton and Neck's self-leadership questionnaire was used to assess self-leadership skills of the nursing managers. The questionnaire has 35 statements assessing three areas of self-leadership including behavioral-focused strategies, natural reward strategies, and constructive thought strategies. Behavioral-focused area includes the following subscales; personal goal setting (self-goal setting), rewarding self (self-rewarding), punishing the self (self-punishment), personal observation (self-observation), and guiding the self (self-cueing). The constructive thought strategy includes the following subscales: successful performance visualization, self-talk, and evaluation of beliefs and assumptions (belief assessment). Natural reward strategies relate to focusing on natural reward. The items of this questionnaire were rated according to the 5-level Likert scale as totally correct, almost correct, slightly correct, sometimes correct, and totally incorrect.
To measure the resistance to change, Wayne and Andy's scale was used that included twenty statements being formed of six subscales of anxiety and distress, avoidance of ambiguity, retrospective questions, pessimism, optimism, valuableness (happiness and self-satisfaction). The 5-point Likert scale was used to rate the scale as (1) totally disagree, disagree (2), neutral (3), agree (4), and totally agree (5). Obtained scores were categorized in three levels; 20–40 represented the weak level of resistance to change, 40–80 the average level of resistance to change, and above 80 the very high level of resistance to change. Cronbach's alpha of self-leadership questionnaire and resistance to change scale scores were 94% and 84%, respectively. To achieve the objectives of the study and answer the questions, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used such as frequency, tables, independent t-test, analysis of variance, regression, step-wise regression analysis, and one-sample t-test. After collecting the data, the results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, version 22, as well as the mentioned tests.
| Results|| |
Of 156 nursing managers examined in this study, 120 participants (76/9%) were female and 36 (23.1%) were male. In terms of age, the highest frequency was observed between research centers related to participants aged between 41 and 50 years (57/7%). The sample average age was 42.74 years with a standard deviation of 5.76. Regarding the education and marital status of the units of study, 84.0% were bachelors and 85.3% were married. In terms of employment experiences, the most frequently observed (44.9%) was related to nursing managers with 11–20 years of working experience. In terms of nonmanagerial working experiences, the most frequency (59.6%) belonged to nursing managers with <10 years of working experiences, and in terms of managerial working experiences, the most frequency (67.9%) belonged to nursing managers with <10 years of managerial working experiences.
Most of the participants (73.7%) were head nurses and most of the managers (51.2%) worked in highly specialized hospitals.
The first question of the research was how much is the self-leadership in nursing managers working in medical sciences' hospitals of Isfahan?
Based on the results presented in [Table 1], it can be observed that the average of a participant's rating in behavioral-focused strategies was 0.54 ± 3.98, and based on the results of the one-sample t-test, the amount of behavioral-focused strategy in sample nursing managers was higher than the average. Rating of all the five dimensions of behavioral-focused strategy such as self-goal setting, self-rewarding, self-punishment, self-observation, and self-curing was significantly higher than average scores (3) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the level of self-leadership for nursing managers has been above average in all dimensions. Hence, the level of self-leadership in all these dimensions for nursing managers has been above average. The highest mean was related to self-observation dimension (0.53 ± 4.25) and the lowest mean was related to the self-reward dimension (3.58 ± 0.88).
|Table 1: The mean of research centers' scores in behavior-focused self-leadership strategies|
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Based on the results of [Table 2], the mean score of the research centers in natural reward strategies was 0.61 ± 3.90. According to the results of sample t-test, the amount of natural reward strategies in nursing managers was above average.
|Table 2: The mean of research centers' scores in natural reward strategies|
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Based on the results of [Table 3], the mean score of the research centers' constructive thought strategy was 0.60 ± 3.73. According to the results of sample t-test, the amount of constructive thought strategy in nursing managers was above average.
|Table 3: The mean of research centers' scores in the constructive thought strategy|
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Regarding all the three dimensions of successful performance visualization, self-talk, and belief assessment, it was realized that the mean scores of these items were significantly higher than average scores (3) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the level of self-leadership for nursing managers was above average in all dimensions. The highest mean was related to belief assessment dimension (0.63 ± 3.85) and the lowest mean was related to the self-talk dimension (1.04 ± 3.49).
Based on the results of [Table 4], the mean score of the research centers in self-leadership questionnaire based on 5-point Likert scale was 0.54 ± 3.88. According to the results of sample t-test, the level of self-leadership in nursing managers was above average.
|Table 4: The mean of research centers' scores in self-leadership questionnaire|
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The second question of the research was how much is the resistance to change in nursing managers working in medical sciences' hospitals of Isfahan?
Based on the results of [Table 5], the level of resistance to organizational change in 92/9% of nurse managers who participated was at average level.
|Table 5: Distribution of research centers' frequencies based on the level of resistance to organizational change|
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The third question of the research was how much is the correlation between nursing managers' self-leadership and their resistance to change?
According to [Table 6] and the result of calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficients, there was a direct significant correlation (P < 0.05) between self-leadership and behavioral-focused strategies and natural reward and constructive thought with resistance to organizational change in the nursing managers, in a way that the scores of self-leadership, behavioral-focused strategies, the natural reward, and constructive thought were more than that of the rate of resistance to organizational change in nursing managers.
|Table 6: The correlation coefficient between nursing managers' self-leadership and their resistance to change|
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Based on the results of [Table 7], evaluating the effect of both the resistance to organizational change strategy and the strategy of self-leadership, it was revealed that the behavioral-focused strategy had a significant role in predicting resistance to organizational change out of self-leadership strategies (P < 0.05).
|Table 7: The estimation of regression model's parameters of self-leadership strategies and resistance to organizational change|
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Based on the results of [Table 8], there was a significant positive correlation between the scores of resistance to organizational change, age, and self-leadership scores (P < 0.05). Regarding the amount of beta self-leadership, it could predict resistance to organizational change better than the rest of the parameters.
Fourth question of the research was what is the relationship between self-leadership and nursing managers' personal and occupational characteristics?
Based on the results of [Table 9], the result of independent t-test showed that there was no significant difference between the scores of self-leadership in male and female managers (P > 0.05). Also, with calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, it was shown that there was no significant relationship between age and self-leadership (P < 0.05). In addition, according to Mann–Whitney test, there was no significant difference between self-leadership and marital status of managers as well as their level of education (P < 0.05).
|Table 9: Mean value of self-leadership of research units in terms of personal characteristics|
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Based on the results of [Table 10] and calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, it was realized that there was a significant direct relationship between experience and self-leadership (P < 0.05). Hence, with increase in managers' work experience, self-leadership increases as well and vice versa. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between managerial work experience and nonmanagerial work experience (P < 0.05). According to the results of independent t-test in the deviation level of 5%, there was no statistically significant difference between self-leadership of head nurses and supervisors (P < 0.05). However, there was some evidence on the increase in the leadership scores of head nurses in the deviation level of 10% (P < 0.1). In addition, based on the results of one-way ANOVA test, there was no statistically significant difference between the scores of self-leadership of managers working in public, specialty, and subspecialty hospitals (P < 0.05).
|Table 10: The mean of self-leadership of research units in terms of job characteristics|
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Based on the results of [Table 11] and according to the results of independent t-test, there was no statistically significant difference between the scores of resistance to organizational change of male and female managers (P > 0.05). Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, it was realized that there was a statistically significant direct relationship between age and resistance to organizational change (P > 0.05) such that, with the increase in managers' age, the resistance to organizational change increased as well and vice versa. In addition, according to the results of Mann–Whitney test, there was no statistically significant difference between married and single nursing managers as well as BA and MA holding nursing managers in resistance to organizational change (P > 0.05).
|Table 11: Fifth question of the research, what is the relationship between resistance to change and individual and working characteristics of nursing managers?|
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Based on the results of [Table 12] and calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, it was realized that there was a significant direct relationship between experience and resistance to organizational change (P < 0.05). Hence, with an increase in managers' work experience, the resistance to organizational change increases as well and vice versa. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between managerial work experience and nonmanagerial work experience (P > 0.05). According to the results of independent t-test in the deviation level of 5%, there was no statistically significant difference between self-leadership of head nurses and supervisors (P > 0.05). In addition, based on the results of one-way ANOVA test, there was no statistically significant difference between the scores of resistance to organizational change of managers working in public, specialty, and subspecialty hospitals (P > 0.05).
|Table 12: The mean of resistance to organizational change of research units in terms of job characteristics|
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| Discussions and Conclusions|| |
Considering the first question of the research, it was shown that leadership in all the three strategies (behavioral focused, constructive thinking, natural reward) and its subscales was observed in nurse managers and found to be above average. It seems that nursing managers have a good self-leadership skill in managing the subsidiaries. Hence, it can be concluded that managers who have more self-leadership behaviors have better performances. Their work is planned and purposeful while their resistance to the appropriate changes can be reduced by considering these behaviors and informing them about the events that occur or is going to occur in the hospital. These findings are consistent with the research of Aghababaei et al(2010) and Rajaeepour et al (2011) who analyzed self leadership strategy.,
Considering the second question of the research, it was shown that the level of resistance to organizational change was observed in nurse managers to be average. It seems that nursing managers are to some extent resistant to new changes. Hence, it can be concluded that, since nurses make up a large group of staffing of hospitals, they should be considered for changes. To reduce their resistance to change, attention needs to be focused on their emotions, consult with them, and give them confidence in executive authority. Before any changes in the system, hospital managers should provide necessary conditions for the changes and pay attention to the demands of managers and nursing staff. The results are consistent with the results of Asefi et al. On the third question and the result of calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, there existed a correlation between self-leadership as a whole and behavioral-focused strategies, natural reward, and constructive thought with resistance to organizational change in the nursing managers. It seems that the increase in self-leadership skills of nursing managers affects their resistance to organizational change. The results are consistent with the results of Rajaiazarkharani (2010), Aghababaei (2009), Elloy (2008) andand Houghton (2006) who evaluated self-leadership and innovative self-leadership, creativity, and abilities as well as variables of organizational ethics.,,, On the fourth question of the research, the results showed that gender, age, academic level, marital status, organizational posts, and managerial and nonmanagerial work experiences as well as the type of hospitals do not influence the development of self-leadership skills. However, it seems that increase in work experience is associated with increase in self-leadership behaviors. The self-leadership skills of head nurses are a bit more than that of the supervisors. Results obtained are consistent with the results of Zeinabadi (2011), Omidi et al., (2007), Naeiji and Abbasalizadeh (2012), and Keyvan Kou et al (2010).,,, Regarding the fifth question of the research, the findings showed that gender, academic level, marital status, work experience, managerial and nonmanagerial work experience, organizational position, and the type of hospital nursing managers do not have an influence on the resistance to change of nursing managers. However, the higher the age and work experience, the higher the resistance to change of the nursing managers. The results of the study are consistent with the results of Jafarpoor (2010), Ahadi et al (2014), Jafarpoor et al(2012), and Soltani et al (2014).,,,
The results indicated that the majority of nursing managers have a good self-leadership skill. As the work experience of a person increases, the use of this skill as well as the resistance to change also increases.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Hence to Make changes and achieve goals in medical educational centers, a careful targeted planning is needed as well as the confidence of managers and nursing staff to improve the quality of the health system.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Heidar Ali Abedi
BSc, MSc, PhD and Professor in Nursing, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12]
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