Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Home About us Ahead Of Print Instructions Submission Subscribe Advertise Contact e-Alerts Editorial Board Login 
Users Online:899
  Print this page  Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 


 
Table of Contents   
LETTER TO THE EDITOR  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 1371-1372
Public health approach to minimize the prevalence and associated sequels of leishmaniasis in the affected regions


Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication6-Nov-2017
 

How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Public health approach to minimize the prevalence and associated sequels of leishmaniasis in the affected regions. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1371-2

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Public health approach to minimize the prevalence and associated sequels of leishmaniasis in the affected regions. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 May 22];10:1371-2. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/5/1371/196628


Dear Sir,

Leishmaniasis is a protozoal disease, predominantly affecting the poorest people in the world, especially from Asia, Africa, the Americas, and southern Europe, and is transmitted to man due to the bite of infected female sandflies.[1],[2] In fact, the current estimates suggest that each year 0.9–1.3 million new cases and close to 30,000 deaths have been reported worldwide.[1] The disease presents in three major forms, namely visceral (life-threatening form involving liver and spleen), cutaneous (the most common), and mucocutaneous (might result in disfigurement and thus stigma).[2],[3]

The visceral form accounts for 0.2–0.4 million cases each year, being endemic in Asia and East Africa, and is fatal in more than 95% of the affected persons, if they are not adequately managed.[1] Further, almost 0.7–1.3 million cases of the cutaneous form have been reported each year.[1] Even though, a very small proportion of infected patients develop the disease, in order to improve the prognosis, it is essential to diagnose (through a combination of clinical, parasitological, and serological tests), and offer prompt, appropriate and complete treatment, as the disease is completely curable based on the disease type, coexisting pathologies, parasite species, and the geographic region.[1],[3]

The incidence of the disease or the risk of acquiring the infection is determined by a wide range of factors like poverty, poor housing, or sanitary conditions (augments vector breeding, provides resting sites, improve access to humans), overcrowding, habit of sleeping outside or on the ground, malnutrition and dietary foods poor in protein–iron–zinc–vitamin A, migration and movement of susceptible people in endemic regions, job-related exposure leading to movement near the vector habitat or the animal reservoir, and environmental alterations (like deforestation, urbanization, etc.).[1],[2],[3],[4] In addition, the vector is significantly affected by the climatic changes in rainfall, temperature, and humidity, allowing favorable conditions for disease transmission in regions which were previously non-endemic.[3],[4]

Moreover, the prevention and control of disease essentially require a comprehensive strategy to simultaneously address the determinants of the epidemiological triad effectively through ensuring early diagnosis and effective case management to minimize the prevalence or disabilities or death, implementing standard vector control measures predominantly in domestic settings, strengthening of surveillance system to detect the disease at the earliest, controlling animal reservoirs, building partnership with other stakeholders, and taking measures to improve the awareness among the general population, and to involve them actively in prevention and control activities.[1],[3],[4] Further, there is a constant need that international welfare agencies should support nations in implementing their strategies, promote equitable access to health services for disease related services, formulate evidence-based recommendations to enable effective prevention and control and monitoring, financing the existing programs, and facilitate research activities to develop better diagnostic tools, drugs, and vaccine.[1],[4]

To conclude, leishmaniasis is a major public health concern and has been considerably associated with serious health, social, and financial consequences. It is the need of the hour that the policy makers should prioritize it among the other public health concerns and aim to eliminate the disease globally.

Acknowledgment

SRS contributed in the conception or design of the work, drafting of the work, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work

PSS contributed in the literature review, revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work

JR contributed in revising the draft, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Leishmaniasis - Fact sheet: 2016. Available from: http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs375/en/. [Last accessed on 2016 Jun 11].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Novo SP, Leles D, Bianucci R, Araujo A. The process of leishmania infection - disease and new perspectives of paleoparasitology. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2016;58:45.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Lemma W, Tekie H, Yared S, Balkew M, Gebre-Michael T, Warburg A. Sero-prevalence of Leishmania donovani infection in labour migrants and entomological risk factors in extra-domestic habitats of Kafta-Humera lowlands kala-azar endemic areas in the northwest Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis 2015;15:99.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Bennis I, De Brouwere V, Ameur B, El Idrissi Laamrani A, Chichaoui S, Hamid S. et al. Control of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in south-eastern Morocco. Trop Med Int Health 2015;20:1297-305.  Back to cited text no. 4
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
3rd Floor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai village, Thiruporur, Guduvancherry Main Road, Sembakkam Post, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.196628

Rights and Permissions




 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *


    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed466    
    Printed13    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded7    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal