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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1673-1680
Impact of training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers on the life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart disease


1 Student research Committee, Shiraz University of medical science, Shiraz, Iran
2 Instructor, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3 phd student, Instructor, student research committee, Shiraz University of medical science, Shiraz, Iran
4 Department of Paramedical, Paramedical school, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
5 Professor of pediatric cardiology, cardiovascular and neonatology research center, Namazi hospital, Shiraz, Iran

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Date of Web Publication11-Jan-2018
 

   Abstract 


Introduction: According to research, congenital heart diseases reduce the quality of life of children. Child's diseases can cause many challenges for family, especially for mother. The family environment can be the first place for teaching emotional intelligence. Management of emotions and reduced pressure of life can increase the life quality of people. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of training emotional intelligence components to the mothers on life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart disease. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 mothers of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart disorders referred to hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the year 2015–2016 were randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software and using Pearson's correlation test, the relationship between emotional intelligence of mothers and life quality of children with heart disorders was investigated. In all statistical tests, P<0.05 was considered as significance level. Results: The results showed that training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers of 2–6-year-old children quality of life with heart diseases is effective(P<0.001). In addition, training components of emotional intelligence have a positive effect on emotional intelligence score of mothers, and their emotional intelligence score increases after educational intervention(P<0.001). Conclusion: Emotional intelligence training of mothers can be effective as a solution to improve the quality of life of children with congenital heart disease.

Keywords: Congenital heart disease, emotional intelligence, mother, quality of life

How to cite this article:
Zare S, Montaseri Z, Setoodeh G, Teshnizi S H, Amoozegar H. Impact of training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers on the life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart disease. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1673-80

How to cite this URL:
Zare S, Montaseri Z, Setoodeh G, Teshnizi S H, Amoozegar H. Impact of training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers on the life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart disease. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Nov 16];10:1673-80. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/6/1673/222695



   Introduction Top


Among cardiovascular diseases, congenital heart disease is the second leading cause of death in childhood and the reason for heart disease in the pediatric population in developed countries,[1] which suggests its high prevalence in children.[1] Every year in the United States, about 32,000 children with congenital heart diseases are born.[10] According to the studies, these problems can strongly affect neural [2] and psychosocial development [3] and physical performance,[4] leading to reduced quality of life of children.[5] Given that the quality of life is closely associated with physical and mental status, personal beliefs, social communication, self-reliance level, and environment, investigating the quality of life can provide important information on life components.[6] One of the important factors including quality of life of these children is the family environment [4] because the family as secure bed for child and adolescent development in today's world has increasing importance. Therefore, any factor that could put security and integrity of the family at risk is considered as a threatening factor.[7] Researchers believe that parents are the primary cares in maintaining the peace and stability and compatibility of the family, and it plays a vital role in giving relaxation for family, prevention, or aggravation of psychological effects in their patient children.[6] As parents are the closest and most important people in support of children, child disease causes that family, especially mother to be faced with many challenges, leading to spend much energy and cost to take care of the children.[6] In a study conducted by Lawoko and Soares in Sweden, on 1092 parents of children with congenital heart disease by the parents, and the findings suggest that the parents of these children compared to parents of children with other diseases have a lower quality of life.[11] Goldbeck and Melches also in Germany conducted a study entitled evaluation of the quality of life in families of children with congenital heart disease. They found a direct relationship between the quality of life of parents and children.[12] The birth of child with previous heart diseases creates many mental and physical problems for parent. The studies show that families of children with previous congenital heart diseases, particularly mothers, are exposed to psychological and social problems and emotional support of parents should receive immediate attention of health system providers.[4] In this regard, interventions such as the changing their perspective can be useful in changing their negative attitude toward the future. In addition, performing group treatments, such as cognitive behavior is useful for parents with children with congenital heart diseases to increase their adaptation skill.[13] One of the factors affecting the quality of life that can help parents in controlling emotions and showing appropriate reactions is emotional intelligence. Golman considers emotional intelligence as the ability to maintain motivation, persistence in the face of adversities, and control of impulses, to postpone successes, empathy, and being hopeful.[8] In the study conducted by Engelberg and Sjöberg, emotional intelligence was defined as the ability to social and emotional adjustment.[9] One of the basic components of emotional intelligence is to control the emotions that are directly associated with stress control. Other components are also indirectly associated with reducing the stress. Being aware of the emotions is the first step in controlling them. People who are aware of their emotions, they can recognize the relationship between their feeling, thoughts, and behavior. People who have a high emotional intelligence enjoy better social skills, long-term relationships, and a greater ability to resolve the conflicts. Family environment is the first place to teach emotional skills. Parental dealing is very important as one of their personality characteristics to comply with the problems and as one of the factors affecting the quality of life of children.[14] Emotional intelligence has social, cognitive, and biological benefits. People who have high emotional adequacy have better social skills, long-term and reliable relations, and greater ability to solve conflicts in life. Although humans due to genetic reasons differ in regulating and showing their emotions, learning through training can enhance the capabilities and skills of the individuals at any level.[14] The family environment is the first place for emotional skills training. This training takes place with direct speech and behavior of the parents with children as well as children modeling of parent emotional skills. Therefore, with regard to the importance of the role of mothers in support of children with congenital heart diseases during their treatment and recovery, this study was conducted to determine the impact of the training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers on life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases, referred to a hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of medical sciences.

Research hypotheses

  1. Training components of emotional intelligence to mothers of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases affect the emotional intelligence of mothers
  2. Training components of emotional intelligence to mothers affect the life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases
  3. There is a relationship between emotional intelligence of mothers and quality of life of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases
  4. There is a relationship between demographic information of children with congenital heart diseases and emotional intelligence of mothers.



   Materials and Methods Top


In this experimental study, 80 mothers with 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases who met the inclusion criteria were studied. Patients were randomly assigned into two intervention and control groups (each group40). Data collection tool included

  1. Mother and child demographic questionnaire
  2. PedsQl Cardiac Module questionnaire of children life quality
  3. Baron emotional intelligence questionnaire.


Both groups completed all of them.

Then, components of emotional intelligence were trained for them in three 90-min sessions in the form of conference and question and answer by expert clinical psychologists and researchers. At the end of the last session and 1month after the training, questionnaires 2 and 3 were provided for both groups.

Sample size

To determine the sample size and to complete the quality of life questionnaire of children aged 2-6, a pilot study(30 in both of the control and intervention group) was performed. To calculate the overall sample size by considering, 1-β = 0.80 and a=0.05, the required sample size in each group was determined 40 people.











To assess the content validity of the questionnaire and any of its questions, qualitative and quantitative methods were used. In the quantitative method, content validity ratio was used, and in the qualitative method, views and recommendation of professors of Faculty of Nursing to reform the questionnaire were used.

Data analysis

Statistical analysis of data was performed using theSPSS 16 software(Prentice Hallpress Upper Saddle River, Nj, USA). For qualitative observations, statistical methods of frequency distribution and percentage were used, and for comparing them in two intervention and control groups, Chi-square test was used. For quantitative observations, statistical methods of mean and standard deviation were used, and for comparing them in control and experiment groups, independent t-test was used. In addition, t-test, Chi-square, and variance analysis were used to examine the impact of demographic variables on quality of life and emotional intelligence. In all statistical tests, P<0.05 was considered as significant level.


   Results Top


Hypothesis 1–Emotional intelligence training to mothers of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases affects emotional intelligence of mothers[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3].
Table 1: Comparing the mean of emotional intelligence of mothers of children with congenital heart diseases at intervals of before, immediately, and after intervention in the intervention and control groups

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Table 2: Comparing mean and SD of mothers' emotional intelligence at intervals of before, immediately, and one month after intervention in the intervention and control groups

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Table 3: Comparison of changes in mean of emotional intelligence score of mothers before and 1 month after intervention in the intervention and control groups

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As shown in [Table1], according with the variance analysis test results with repeated measures, the mean score of emotional intelligence of mothers at intervals of before, immediately, and 1month after the intervention showed a significant difference(f=161.181, P<0.001). In addition, comparing the mean score of mothers' emotional intelligence between control and intervention groups regardless of the time shows the mean score of emotional intelligence of mothers in the intervention group is significantly high compared to the that in mothers of control group(f=16.485, P<0.001).

As shown in [Table 2], in accordance with the independent t-test, the mean score of mothers' emotional intelligence in the intervention group at intervals of before, immediately, and one month after the intervention is significantly more than that in the control group. It increases over time so that mean score for emotional intelligence of mothers in the intervention group increased significantly one month after intervention.

As shown in [Table3], in accordance with the t-test results, the mean score changes of emotional intelligence of mothers in the intervention group increased significantly compared with the control group(P<0.001).

Hypothesis 2–Training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers affects life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart disease.

Based on the variance analysis test with repeated measures, the mean score of emotional intelligence of mothers at intervals of before, immediately, and one month after the intervention showed a significant difference (f = 161/181, p <0/001), as shown in [Table 4].Furthermore, there was significant difference between the mean scores of children quality of life in the intervention and control groups in terms of the dimensions:(a) problems associated with heart disorders and treatment, (b) problems related to understanding physical appearance, and(c) problems associated with treatment anxiety at the interval of 1month after training(P>0.05).
Table 4: Comparison of mean score of various dimensions of quality of life of children with congenital heart diseases at intervals of before, immediately, and 1 month after intervention in intervention and control groups

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However, there was statistically significant difference between the mean scores of children quality of life in terms of the dimension of problems with pharmacotherapy at the intervals before, immediately, and after the intervention(P<0.05). And also, no significant difference was observed between the mean score of children quality of life in the intervention and control groups in terms of the dimension of (a) communicative problems(P=0.59) and (b) cognitive problems(P=0.66) at the intervals before, immediately, and after the intervention(P<0.05).

As shown in [Table5], in accordance with the independent t-test results, the total score of children life quality in the intervention and control group showed no significant difference at intervals before, immediately, and after the intervention(P>0.05). However, the mean totals scores of children life quality in the intervention and control group showed significant difference at the interval of 1month after training(P<0.05). Based on independent t-test results, the mean total score of life quality of children in the intervention group in interval of one month after intervention was significantly more than the mean total score of life quality of children in control group (p<0.05).
Table 5: Comparison of mean of total score life quality of children with congenital heart diseases at intervals of before, immediately, and 1 month after intervention in intervention and control groups

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Mean score of quality of life of children at intervals of before, immediately, and 1month after intervention in both groups decreased significantly(f=161.38, P<0.001)[Table6]. In addition, comparison of means in accordance with the results of variance analysis with repeated measures, total score of quality of life of children between the intervention and control groups showed that regardless of time, the score of quality of life in intervention and control groups is significant different(f=0.65. P= 0.42).
Table 6: Comparison of changes in mean of quality of life of children with congenital heart diseases at intervals of before, immediately, and 1 month after intervention in intervention and control groups

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Hypothesis 3–there is relationship between emotional intelligence of mothers and quality of life of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases.

In accordance with the results of Pearson's correlation test, the significant difference was not found between emotional intelligence of mothers and the quality of life of children in intervals of before and immediately after the intervention and significant and reverse relationship was found between them[Table7]. In other words, after intervention, with increasing emotional intelligence score, the score of quality of life was significantly reduced(P<0.001).
Table 7: Results of Pearson's correlation test, significant difference

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Hypothesis 4–There is a relationship between the demographic information of children with congenital heart diseases and mothers' emotional intelligence.

In accordance with results of one-way analysis of variance test in both experimental and control groups, it was shown that none of the demographic variables of children has significant correlation with mothers' emotional intelligence in two control and intervention groups(P>0.05).


   Discussion and Conclusion Top


Based on the results of [Table1], the mean score of mothers' emotional intelligence in intervention group had a higher increase compared to control group. In addition, the changes created 1month later were more stable and showed increasing trend. However, significant change was not observed in the control group. In general, the difference between control and intervention groups became significant after intervention(P<0.01). The results of this research are in line with the results of studies conducted by Omidi Arjanki et al. on the impact of emotional intelligence training on strengthening the emotional intelligence of students [15] and Alavi et al. (2013) on the effect of emotional intelligence training on increasing the emotional intelligence of Workers of Martyr Foundation and Veterans Affairs. In this study, emotional intelligence training affected their increased emotional intelligence.[16] The results of [Table5] indicate that training the components of emotional intelligence has a positive effect on emotional intelligence score of mothers and their emotional intelligence score increased significantly after intervention. As a result, the first hypothesis that states training emotional intelligence components will affect the emotional intelligence of mothers is accepted. The results of this study are in line with results of Sharif et al., (2010) which showed that training the components of emotional intelligence affects the emotional quotient of nurses working in Intensive Care Unit(ICU).[18] Bar-on et al. (2000) believed that emotional intelligence changes during the transformation of the human and at the same time, the skills can be improved with training and the use of various techniques.[19] The results of this research are in line with the results of study conducted by Rezaei(2016) on the impact of training emotional intelligence components on mental health and coping strategies of nurses working in ICUs. In this study, emotional intelligence training at intervals affected their increased emotional intelligence.[17] According to the results of [Table3], the mean scores of the quality of life in dimensions of problems associated with heart disorders and treatment, understanding physical appearance, communicative, cognitive, and treatment anxiety were not significantly different between two groups at intervals before, immediately, and after intervention, and the two groups were math in these dimensions(P>0.05). However, significant difference was found between two groups at the dimension of problems associated with pharmacotherapy before, immediately, and 1month after intervention(P>0.05). The cause of this difference can be discussed based on the conditions of sampling in this research. In addition, between 2010 and 2011, correct medication, face-to-face training, and training during discharge are important correct and importuning validating the hospital and policies implemented in hospital units, and all samples in the intervention group were hospitalized during their diseases due to heart disease and trainings on taking heart drug, drug side effects, and necessary cares during taking the drug can be considered in this regard. The results of this research are in line with the findings of Sadeghi et al. on comparing the school-age children quality of life compared with children with congenital heart disease from their own and parents' perspective. The results of their study showed that among the dimensions of the quality of life of children with heart disease, the lowest problem relates to medicinal treatments from the perspective of mother and child compared to the rest of the dimensions.[20] Azhar et al. showed that the score of the children with congenital heart diseases at psychological dimension is lower than other dimensions from the mothers' perspective.[21] Furthermore, there was significant difference between the mean scores of children quality of life in the intervention and control groups in terms of the dimensions of problems associated with heart disorders and treatment, problems related to understanding physical appearance, problems with pharmacotherapy, and problems associated with treatment anxiety at the interval of 1month after training(P>0.05).

These studies indicate that the role of mothers has impact on the quality of life of children with congenital heart diseases and through training the necessary skills to mothers, quality of life of the children can be improved. As a result, the second hypothesis stating that training components of emotional intelligence to mothers affects the quality of life of 2–6-year-old children with congenital diseases is accepted

Studies conducted in this regard include the following cases

Dionysia showed that family environment is among the factors influencing the quality of life of children with congenital heart diseases.[22] In a study conducted by Rahimi et al., it was reported that there is relationship between the mother's general health status and quality of life of children with cancer.[23] Sadeghi et al. in their study stated that implementing discharge planning designed based on the needs of parents and children can increase the quality of life of children with congenital heart diseases.[20] In addition, Asadi et al. stated that personal, psychological, social, and demographic factors have impact of the quality of life of people with specific disease.[24] Investigating the results of the study suggest that training emotional intelligence components to the mothers has positive impact on quality of life of children with heart diseases and after intervention, life quality of children improved. As a result, the third hypothesis stating that training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers affects the quality of life of 2–6-year-old children with heart diseases is accepted. In addition, the second hypothesis of the study stating that there is relationship between emotional intelligence of mothers and life quality of children with heart diseases is accepted. In a study conducted by Aminabadi et al. (2012), the results showed that emotional intelligence of mothers and parenting style have impact on anxiety and behavior of children in the dentistry field.[25] Finally, the overall goal of this research was to examine the impact of the training components of emotional intelligence to mothers on the quality of life of 2–6-year-old children with congenital heart diseases referred to hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of medical sciences. The obtained results showed that by increasing the emotional intelligence score of mothers, children's quality of life score reduced, indicating enhanced quality of life of children.


   Conclusion and Application of the Results Top


Due to emotional intelligence capabilities, humans are able to manage life pressures that one part of it relates to emotional dimension. In general, the results of the present study show that training components of emotional intelligence to mothers can increase their emotional intelligence and it can lead to increase the life quality of 2–6-year-old children with congenital diseases. Therefore, training and promotion of emotional intelligence in parents causes that children to be successful in understanding their feelings and expressing emotions appropriately, finding ways to calm themselves and control the unpleasant emotions, solving the problems and coping with them, as well as the ability to understand the feelings of others and empathy with them, and the result of these changes is improving the life quality of children at various dimensions. The results of this research show that the training the components of emotional intelligence to mothers enhances the quality of life of the children. They can be also used in various educational, research, and prevention parts at different levels of treatment.

Research limitation

One limitation of the study was lack of parents' cooperation to participate or withdrawal during the intervention, which it was solved by providing complete explanation and stating the goals and advantages of the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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Correspondence Address:
Z Montaseri
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_580_17

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