| Abstract|| |
Introduction: For many years, human beings have applied plants as medicine and their healing impact has been proved for many years. Kelussia odoratissima is a biennial, edible, and fragrant plant with medicinal and food applications. This plant is dedicated to some pastures of Iran and this plant is not reported in other regions around the world. Flavonoids are the most important ingredient of this plant. Materials and Methods: In this study, to evaluate the effect of feeding mice with secondary hyperlipidemia with K. odoratissima, we used thirty mice with secondary hyperlipidemia of similar weight and divided them into three equal groups. For 3 weeks, the first and second groups were fed with the extract of K. odoratissima with doses of 600 mg/kg weight of mice and 1200 mg/kg weight of mice, respectively, and triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and weight of mice were evaluated. Results: The results showed that, at the end of the 1st week, there was no significant change in any of the groups, but at the end of the 2nd week, in the first group, there was a reduction of LDL; in the second group total cholesterol and triglyceride without any weight change were reduced and LDL factors, total cholesterol, and triglyceride had low weight change; and in the third group, there was an increase of LDL factors, total cholesterol, and triglyceride and an increase of weight. At the end of the 3rd week, in the first group, there was a reduction of LDL factors, total cholesterol, and triglyceride and a little weight reduction; in the second group there was a reduction of LDL factors, total cholesterol, and triglyceride and a considerable reduction of the weight; and in the third group, LDL factors and total cholesterol, triglycerides, and weight of mice were increased. Conclusion and Discussion: Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and weight of mice using K. odoratissima. Except two groups that were administered K. odoratissima, the weight of the other animals was increased. The increase in the activity of lipoprotein lipase as the mediator of hydrolysis of triglyceride in chylomicron causes free fatty acids to generate energy or be stored as fat.
Keywords: Extract, hyperlipidemia, Kelussia odoratissima
|How to cite this article:|
Berenjian K, Kiani A. An investigation of the impact of Kelussia odoratissima extract on mice with secondary hyperlipidemia. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1752-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Berenjian K, Kiani A. An investigation of the impact of Kelussia odoratissima extract on mice with secondary hyperlipidemia. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 May 25];10:1752-5. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/6/1752/222715
| Introduction|| |
The side effects of chemical drugs, high sensitivity of people to some drugs, resistance of most diseases against chemical drugs, etc., have directed the attention of the researchers and scholars to use plant products in different fields. For a long time, human beings have applied some medicines as drug and their therapeutic effect is experienced for many years. Using herbal medicine to heal diseases has received much attention since the ancient times.
Kelussia odoratissima belongs to the family of Umbelliferae and was introduced by Mozaffarian (2003) with the old name of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaffarian as Amirkabiria odoratissima Mozaffarian, a species of Kelussiae. This biennial plant is edible and fragrant. The stem is with a height 120–200 cm and is cylindrical with bow-form wide leaves. It is mostly found in mountainous and semi-mountainous areas. This plant has medicinal and food applications and is dedicated to some pastures in Iran. This species is not found in other areas all around the world. Flavonoids are an important part of the ingredient of this plant and are found mostly in the seed, stem, and inflorescence.,,,
Fractions of the extract of K. odoratissima indicate routine and trihydroxy flavanone, caffeic acid, and phthalide.,, The most important compounds of K. odoratissima extract with >1% of essence include sis-ligustilide, 3-trans butylidene phthalide, trans-ligustilide, kesan, spathulenol, 2-octen-1-Ol acetate, globulol, 3-N-butylidene phthalide, beta selinene, pentylbenzene, coparen, sis-caryophyllene, trans-Beta-farensen, alpha-copaene, N-nonanal, and limonene. Today, most drugs are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and each of these drug groups created special complications. As synthetic drugs in the treatment of hyperlipidemia have many side effects, it is necessary to provide drugs with low side effects and no side effect of K. odoratissima has been reported.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This study consists of two stages:
First stage: Extraction
In this stage, the powder (dried leaves) is poured in a percolator and extraction was performed at the temperature range of 15°C–20°C with methanol 80%. Previously, the given powder was mixed with the solvent to be wet and then it was transferred to a percolator. The rate of extraction from 1 kg sample was 5ml/min. To do this, 1000 g of dried powder was taken in a beaker and methanol 80 was added to cover the powder as 3.5 cm of alcohol was higher than the given powder. After 24 h, the mixture was transferred to a percolator and a filter paper was put on it. After adding methanol 80, the percolator was regulated, as the speed of the solvent was 3–3 drops/min. To receive a better result, every 6 h, the mixture was mixed and after 48 h, the total mixture was filtered by Büchner funnel and cotton was at the bottom of the funnel. The extract was transferred to a rotary evaporator. This is done at a low temperature in rotary evaporator and the evaporated extract was transferred to the watch glass and transferred in an oven at a temperature of 40°C to be dried totally.,,
Second stage: Feeding mice with hyperlipidemia by the extract and evaluation of the relevant changes
Thirty Sprague–Dawley mice with hyperlipidemia with a weight range of 155–160 g were purchased from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. The mouse cage was based on the standard laboratory animals' condition proposed by NIH. The condition of experiment was consist of: temperature and relative humidity 22c°-24c°, 40%-50% respectively. Situation of light was 12h light and 12h darkness. The tools used were nasogastric tube, digital top loading, electric grind and etc. At first, the extracts were prepared by the above-mentioned method. After 3 days and adaptation of the mice with the new conditions, other stages of experiments were conducted on the mice.
The mice were divided randomly into three equal groups (each group with ten mice):
- The first group as the group receiving K. odoratissima extract with the dosage of 600 mg/kg
- The second group as the group receiving K. odoratissima extract with the dosage of 1200 mg/kg
- The third group not receiving extract is considered as negative control group.
For easy experimentation, the mice are weighed well, the factors of mean cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured, and the mice were kept in three separated cages. The extracts were given via nasogastric tube to the first and second groups. For comparison efficacy of standard pellet and prepared Kellussia odoratissima extract, the first and second group of mices received daily as 600 and 1200 mg/kgweight of body recpectively Kellussia odoratissima extract for 3 weeks. During the experiment, the third group was fed with ordinary food (standard pellet). All groups could use water freely. At the end of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks, blood samples were taken from the mice, and relevant factors of hyperlipidemia (mean cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL) and weight of mice were measured.
| Results|| |
The evaluations at the end of the 1st week were not observed in any of the three groups (significant changes in the weight and factors of hyperlipidemia such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL), but at the end of the 2nd week, in the first group, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL were reduced but the weight of mice was not changed. In the second group, at the end of the 2nd week, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol were reduced. Also, the weight of mice was reduced about 10% of the weight of their body. At the end of the 2nd week in third group of mice, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol were increased and the weight of mice was increased as 20% of the total weight. At the end of the 3rd week, in the first group, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol were decreased. The weight was reduced as 15% of the weight of mice. At the end of the 3rd week in the second group, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol were reduced considerably and achieved normal level and the weight was reduced to 20%, and at the end of the 3rd week in Group 3, the weight increased by 15% and triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol were also increased.
| Discussion|| |
The present study is aimed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial part of K. odoratissima in hyperlipidemia mice with high triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol. By using hydroalcoholic extract of K. odoratissima significantly was reduced the weight of mices, LDL and total cholesterol, and using K. odoratissima extract reduced the weight of mice significantly; except two groups using K. odoratissima extract, the weight of animals in the other groups was increased.
In a study done by Asgary et al. on the edible effects of K. odoratissima powder in hypercholesterolemia rabbits with cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein mean was not changed in the group using K. odoratissima at the end of the study and the results were not consistent with the results of the present study. The mean cholesterol, triglyceride, very LDL, and LDL were reduced significantly compared to the control group, and this is consistent with the present study. In a study done by Tsi D, Das NP and Tan BK. This plant increased the absorption of triglyceride via liver and reduced liver enzyme activity of acylglycerol lipase, and microsomal P450 enzyme complex activity was increased in this tissue.
The probable mechanism of reducing lipid effects of flavonoids in K. odoratissima, reduction of cholesterol acyltransferase from liver cells (responsible for esterification of cholesterol and its storage), reduction of hydroxymethyl glutathione coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA),, and increase of liver receptors.
Thus, the mechanism of antioxidant in the reduction of lipids and lipoprotein is through inhibition of biosynthesis cholesterol. The feedback regulation of cholesteral perform in biosynthesis of HMG-coA.
The reaction of convert of HMG-coA to mevalonat carried out with HMG-coA reductase and cholesterol reducing agents increase transform cholesterol to bile acid and cause the reduction of lipd and lipoproteins. The cholesterol hydroxylation is the first and the most important regulation stage in biosynthesis of bile acids catalyzed by 7α- hydroxylase.
Furthermore, the increase in the activity of lipoprotein lipase as the mediator of hydrolysis of triglyceride in chylomicron can cause free fatty acid to be dispersed for energy generation or fat storage. The cholesterol concentration as the constituent of lipoprotein can be reduced and after that the synthesis of lipoprotein is reduced. This mechanism can justify the reduction of cholesterol and lipoproteins in the present study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Ninfali P, Bacchiocca M. Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:2222-6.
Wasik J. The truth about herbal supplements. Consumers Dig 1999;2:75-9.
Asgary S, Naderi G, Dashti G, Paknahad Z. Effect of Amirkabiria odorastissima Mozaffarian
on the development and progression of fatty streaks in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Phytother Res 2004;18:370-2.
Gandomcar M. Survey organic oil of Amirkabiria odoratissima Mozaffarian
. General PhD pharmacology dissertation. Isfahan Univ Med Sci 2008;38:2-4.
Dadkhahi Z. Survey of Amirkabiria odoratissima Mozaffarian. General PhD pharmacology dissertation. Isfahan Univ Med Sci 2008;5:115-8.
Gandomcar M. Survey organic oil of Amirkabiria odoratissima Mozaffarian
. General PhD pharmacology dissertation. Isfahan Univ Med Sci 2008;4:38-482.
Dapkhahi Z. Survey of Amirkabiria odoratissima Mozaffarian
. Thesis of general PhD pharmacology dissertation. Isfahan Univ Med Sci 2008;3:29-54.
Harbrone JB. The Flavonoids Advance in Research Science. London: Chapman Hall Pub.; 1994. p. 292-480.
Salimi M, Ebrahimi A, Shojaee Asadieh Z, Saei Dehkordi SS. Essential oil
composition of Kelussia odoratissima
Mozaff. Iran J Med Aromat Plants 2010;26:147-56.
Braunwald K, Hauser F, Jameson L. Hyperlipidemia: Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th
ed., Vol. 12. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. p. 1440, 2295-8.
Kishor S, Jain MK, Kathiravan RS. The biology and chemistry of hyperlipidemia. Bioorg Med Chem 2007;15:674-820.
Aynehchi Y. Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plant. Tehran: University, Press Center; 1986. p. 1042-3.
Zargare A. Medicinal Plant. Tehran: University Center Press; 1992. p. 620-30.
Samsam Shariat H. Medicinal Plant Propagation. Tehran: Mani Publication; 1990. p. 297.
Tsi D, Das NP, Tan BK. Effects of aqueous celery (Apium graveolens
) extract on lipid parameters of rats fed a high fat diet. Planta Med 1995;61:18-21.
Bok SH, Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, Son KH, Jeong TS, et al
. Plasma and he patic holesterol and hepatic activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and acyl CoA: Cholesterol transferase are lower in rats fed citrus peel extract or a mixture of citrus bioflavonoid. J Nutr 1999;129:1182-5.
Davalos A, Fernandez-Hernando C, Cerrato F, Martinez-Botas J, Gomez-Coronado D, Gomez-Cordoves C, et al
. Red grape juice polyphenols alter cholesterol homeostasis and increase LDL-receptor activity in human cells in vitro
. J Nutr 2006;136:1766-73.
Lampe JW. Health effects of vegetables and fruit: Assessing mechanisms of action in human experimental studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70 3 Suppl: 475S-90S.
Madani H, Ahmadi Mahmood Abadi N, Vahdati A. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens
(Dill) on plasma glucose and lipid levels in diabetes induced rats. Iran J Diabetes Lipid 2006;2:109-16.
Arean Mahr S. Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry. 27th
ed. Tehran: Taymorzada Publication; 2006. p. 226-51.
Tehran University Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None