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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1774-1778
A comparison of cognitive emotion regulation, lifestyle, and dimensions of adjustment in 3 groups of patients with multiple sclerosis, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor


Department Psychology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

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Date of Web Publication11-Jan-2018
 

   Abstract 


The purpose of the present study WAS to compare cognitive emotion regulation, lifestyle, and dimensions of adjustment in 3 groups of patients with multiple sclerosis(MS), patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor. The statistical sample included 72patients that were all selected by convenience sampling method. They filled out the questionnaires of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, multidimensional adjustment scales, and lifestyle questionnaire. The results showed that in the score of positive and negative cognitive emotion regulation, the mean score of the MS group was significantly more than the cancer group. In lifestyle, the mean score of the brain tumor group was significantly more than the other two groups. In adjustment and personal, social, job, and family dimensions, the scores of the cancer group were significantly more than the other two groups.

Keywords: Adjustment, cognitive emotion regulation, lifestyle

How to cite this article:
Miri KJ, Samani S. A comparison of cognitive emotion regulation, lifestyle, and dimensions of adjustment in 3 groups of patients with multiple sclerosis, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:1774-8

How to cite this URL:
Miri KJ, Samani S. A comparison of cognitive emotion regulation, lifestyle, and dimensions of adjustment in 3 groups of patients with multiple sclerosis, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Nov 16];10:1774-8. Available from: http://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/6/1774/222719



   Introduction Top


Depression, anxiety, and mental pressures are the most important and common emotional problems in the present society. These emotional problems threat different groups of society.[1] The researchers and theorists consider cognitive emotion regulation as the ability to change or control an emotional mode.[2] Cognitive regulation is an important factor to determine health and have negative emotion due to the presence of negative thoughts and consequences about worry and use of inefficient coping methods.[3],[4] Problems in emotion regulation are related to adjustment.[5] Adjustment is known as a process by which the living creature makes a balance between personal needs and the conditions which affect those needs.[6] Adjustment is the process of finding and accepting appropriate behavioral methods to the environment or changes. Thus, adjustment can affect the lifestyle and life quality. Lifestyle is a word that has been recently used to describe the life conditions of human. Lifestyle includes a set of beliefs, values, behavioral methods, modes, and tastes on everything.[7] Thus, it can be said that as emotion regulation affects adjustment and lifestyle of mental and life processes of healthy people, this effect has more effect on the life of people who suffer from different diseases. Thus, it can be said that the mental processes affecting certain patients are sometimes more important than their physical and medical problems.[8] Thus, the present study seeks to answer this question: Is there any difference between 3 groups of patients with multiple sclerosis(MS), patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor in terms of cognitive emotion regulation, lifestyle, and dimensions of adjustment?


   Research Method Top


The research method is expose factor or causal-comparative. The statistical population includes all 3 groups of patients with MS, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor. The statistical sample included 72 people(each group of MS and cancer=30patients and tumor group=12patients) that were selected by convenience sampling method from Amir Hospital, neurologists' offices, and the patients who referred to Motahari Hospital in Shiraz.


   Instrument Top


In this study, cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, multidimensional adjustment scales, and lifestyle questionnaire were used.

Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire

This questionnaire was developed by GarnefskiandKraaij.[9] Farsi form of this questionnaire includes 36 items that were validated by Siamak and Sadeqi.[10] Alpha's coefficient for the subscales of this questionnaire was reported in the range 0.71–0.81 by Garnefski and Kraaij.[9] In the present study, the Cronbach's alpha of the scales of positive cognitive emotion regulation was 0.88 and negative cognitive emotion regulation was 0.89.

Multidimensional adjustment scale

This scale has 15 questions that were designed by Haidari, Samani, and Sohrabi [11] and has 5 dimensions of personal, social, academic, family, and job adjustment. The scale was reanalyzed by confirmatory factor by Hossein-Abadi [12] and showed 3 dimensions of job, family, academic and personal. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92 was obtained for the total score. In the present study, the questionnaire's validity was studied through Cronbach's alpha and coefficients between 0.79 and 0.86 were obtained for personal, social, academic, family, and job adjustment and for the total score it was obtained as 0.93.

Lifestyle questionnaire

This questionnaire was designed byAlahrabi and Sohrabi [13] and has 36 questions and a total score. Its total score shows the adequacy of lifestyle. The alpha coefficient calculated by the designers of the questionnaire was reported as 0.89. In the present study, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was obtained as 0.93 for the total score.


   Results Top


[Table1] shows the mean and standard deviation of cognitive emotion regulation and lifestyle and [Table2] shows the mean and standard deviation of adjustment.
Table 1: The mean and standard deviation of cognitive emotion regulation and lifestyle

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Table 2: The mean and standard deviation of adjustment

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To compare these three groups in cognitive emotion regulation, the multivariate analysis of variance was used. However, before the analysis, the equality of variance was studied by Levin's' test. The results of Levine test were not significant, so the analysis of variance can be used[Table3].
Table 3: The results of testing the intergroup effects among the groups in terms of cognitive emotion regulation

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The results of analysis of variance in [Table3] show that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the compared groups in terms of positive and negative styles of cognitive emotional regulation. Then, the results of Scheffe post hoc test specify the difference in groups.

[Table4] shows the results of Scheffe test to compare groups in cognitive emotion regulation.
Table 4: The results of Scheffe test to compare groups in cognitive emotion regulation

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The results of [Table4] show that the mean score of the MS group is significantly higher than the cancer group in terms of cognitive emotion regulation. However, there is no difference between the other groups. Furthermore, the mean score of the MS group is significantly higher than the cancer group in terms of negative cognitive emotion regulation. However, there is no difference between the other groups.

To compare the lifestyles in these groups a univariate analysis of variance was used. But before the analysis, the regression equality was studied by Levine test. The results of Levine test were not significant, but the analysis of variance can be used. The results are seen in the following table.

[Table5] shows the results of testing the intergroup effects among the groups in terms of lifestyle
Table 5: The results of testing the intergroup effects among the groups in terms of lifestyle

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The results of [Table5] show that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the compared groups in terms of lifestyle. Then, the results of Scheffe post hoc test specify the difference in groups.

[Table6] shows the results of Scheffe post hoc test to compare the difference in groups in terms of lifestyle.
Table 6: The results of Scheffe post hoc test to compare the difference in groups in terms of lifestyle

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The results of [Table6] show that the mean score of the MS group is significantly higher than the cancer group in lifestyle. In addition, the mean score of the cancer group is significantly less than the tumor group in lifestyle, and finally, the mean score of the MS group is significantly less than the tumor group in lifestyle.

To examine the hypothesis that there is a significant difference between these three groups, multivariate analysis of variance was run. However, before the analysis, the regression equality was studied by Levine test. The results of Levine test were not significant, but the analysis of variance can be used. The results are seen in [Table7].
Table 7: The results of MANOVA test to compare the difference between groups in terms of adjustment

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[Table8] shows the results of Scheffe post hoc test to compare the difference between groups in terms of adjustment.
Table 8: The results of Scheffe to compare the groups in terms of adjustment and its dimensions

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As shown in [Table8], there is a significant difference between the 3 groups of patients with MS, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor in terms of adjustment and personal, social, jab, and family adjustment. The results of Scheffe post hoc test specify the difference in groups.

[Table8] shows the results of Scheffe to compare the groups in terms of adjustment and its dimensions.

The results of [Table8] show in adjustment and its dimensions, the mean score of the Cancer group is significantly higher than the MS and tumor groups.


   Discussion and Conclusion Top


First hypothesis: There is a significant difference between 3 groups of patients with MS, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor in terms of cognitive emotion regulation. The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the compared groups in terms of positive and negative cognitive emotion regulation. These results are in line with the studies of Bahrami [8] and Ellis.[14] It can be explained that MS is a long-term disease and its treatment takes years. Thus, it can be expected that the quality of the patient's interactions to himself and the external world would change. Thus, this result that the patients with MS use more positive and negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies is not beyond expectation. On the other hand, the results showed that the cancer group uses the two strategies in a minimum way. Perhaps, this result can be attributed to 2 factors of chemotherapy and severity of cancer than the other two groups. The sample group of cancer patients was treated by chemotherapy; this issue puts too much physical and mental pressure on the patient so that their function can be totally misadjusted. Simultaneously with the issue, cancer cannot be treated. This disease does not leave any opportunity for positive and negative regulation because the disease is stronger than the patient. Thus, the strategies of adjustment can be minimized.

Second hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the 3 groups of patients with MS, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor in terms of lifestyle. The results of univariate analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the compared groups in terms of lifestyle. These results are in line with the study of Atr Kar.[15] It can be explained that first, the group of brain tumors were those who have been relieved from this disease and must have been examined every 6months. Thus, this group needed a healthy lifestyle to minimize the probability of disease recurrence. Second, the issue of relief from disease can totally change the lifestyle. In other words, the person changes his lifestyle due to the experience of disease. Thus, the high scores of this group than the other two groups are justified. On the other hand, the issue that why the mean score of the cancer group in the lifestyle is lower than the two other groups can be studied according to the mentioned explanation.

Third hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the 3 groups of patients with MS, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor in terms of adjustment and its dimensions. The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between the 3 groups of patients with MS, patients with cancer under chemotherapy and patients relieved from brain tumor in terms of adjustment. These results are in line with the studies of Samii [16] and Duffy et al.[17] It can be explained that the scores of adjustment and its dimensions measure the lack of adjustment. Thus, the cancer group shows the minimum adjustment in the total score and dimensions than the other 2 groups. This result can be predicted with previous explanations.[18],[19], This study has some limitations such as being cross-sectional, limitation of the sample group and using only questionnaire and lack of control in cultural differences. Doing studies in this form in different age and gender groups are the suggestions of this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

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SamaniS, JokarB. Check the validity of the short form of depression, anxiety and stress. JHumanit Soc Sci Shiraz Univ 2002;24:65-76.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
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Shaban M, Monjamed Z, Abbas M, Hossainpour, Ali. The relationship between cancer characteristics and quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Journal of Hayat Year 2004;10(3):79-84.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
BahramiM. Avoidance Behavior, Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Self-Perception in Children with Social Anxiety Disorder and Normal. Master's Thesis, Researcher at City University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
GarnefskiN, KraaijV. Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire–Development of a short 18-item version(CERQ-short). JPersonality Individual Differences 2006;41:1045-53.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Samani S, Sadeghi L. Psychometric Ptoperties of the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire. Journal of Psychological Methods and Models 2011;1,1:51-62.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
NejadG, SardorudiH, Compare the Self and Compatibility Single Women and Divorced Women in Bandar Abbas. Master's Thesis, Field of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Science Research Hormozgan; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Hossein-AbadiH. Comparison of Academic Achievement, Social Adjustment and Depression Boarding School Students with High School Students Esfaraien Daily. MA Thesis, University Branch; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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EftekharZ, AhmadA, EftekharZ. The effect of emotional intelligence to reduce aggression and increase individual and social adjustment in the secondary school students in the city of Ahvaz. New Findings Psychol Mag 2010;4(12):137-49.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Ellis A. Interested Life, translated by Firozbakht M, Roshed, Tehran; 2010.   Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Atr KarZ. The Study of Cancer and Gastric Cancers Associated with Lifestyles using Statistical Models in Gilan Province in 8990, PhD Thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University, School of Medicine; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
SamiiF. Introduction to Chemotherapy Drugs. Tehran: Mirmah; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
DuffyCM, AllenSM, ClarkMA. Discussions regarding reproductive health for young women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. JClin Oncol 2005;23:766-73.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Haidari S, Samani S, Sohrabi N. Confirmatory factor analysis on multidimensional adjustment scale. Procedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2016;217:1199-202.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Alahrabi M, Sohrabi N. Psychometric Properties of the Life Style Scale 2016;7(27):121-38.  Back to cited text no. 19
    

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Correspondence Address:
Siamak Samani
Department of Psychology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_647_17

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    Tables

  [Table1], [Table2], [Table3], [Table4], [Table5], [Table6], [Table7], [Table8]



 

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