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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-7

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a Nigerian child: A review of the literature


1 Department of Paediatrics, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Adelaide and Meath, National Children's Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
3 Department of Surgery, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
4 Department of Medicine, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Adaobi Uzoamaka Solarin
Department of Paediatrics, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_797_16

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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening, underdiagnosed hematologic disorder that occurs from unregulated immune activation, extreme inflammation, and tissue damage. The major cause of mortality in HLH is a delay in diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment which occurs due to the variability of the clinical manifestation of this disease entity. We present a case of a 17-year-old adolescent who presented with fever, painful facial swelling that partially resolved with the initial use of intravenous dexamethasone. Diagnosis of HLH was finally made and he had complete resolution of symptoms following appropriate treatment. With careful search, there is no report of HLH in Nigeria and the possibility of missed diagnosis and underdiagnosis cannot be ruled out. This case report of HLH is the first in Nigeria and due to the rarity of the disease the need to raise more awareness is imperative as a high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis.


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