Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 87-94

Mother to child transmission of HIV and its option B+ cascade predictors: An ecological study

1 College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
2 Departments of Paediatrics, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
3 Departments of Nursing Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
4 Division of Women, Rikshospitalet, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
5 Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

Correspondence Address:
Augustine Ndaimani
University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box A178, Avondale, Harare
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ATMPH.ATMPH_530_17

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Context: In 2013, the world Health Organization endorsed Option B plus as a strategy towards elimination of vertical transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The purpose of the study was to examine the Option B+ trends and outcome predictors in Zimbabwe. Aims: to examine the PMTCT trends in Mashonaland East Province in Zimbabwe to determine the programmatic correlates of reduced MTCT in the first three years of introduction of PMTCT option B+. Settings and Design: Ecological study in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Methods and Materials: The study was based on Option B plus data from the Provincial Health information system. Spatial mapping of MTCT rates was done using ArcMap 10.1. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression of the correlates of MTCT rates using R software based on step-wise Akaike information criterion. Results: The MTCT rate for Mashonaland East was 5.3% in 2014, 5.2% in 2015 and 4.0% in 2016. The predictors for reduced PMTCT included: booking the pregnancy with a known HIV positive status (β= -0.011, SEB=0.0035), arriving in labour and delivery with unknown HIV status (β= -0.029, SEB=0.0078), testing HIV positive at retesting in labour and delivery (β= - 0.04; SEB=0.03), women with unknown HIV status within 24 months post-delivery (β= - 0.0044; SEB=0.0032) and identification of HIV exposed infants within 72 hours of birth (β= - 0.01; SEB=0.0026). Conclusions: PMTCT Option B+ was associated with a decline in MTCT rate. Intensive psychosocial support of pregnant or nursing women may facilitate reduction of MTCT rates.

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