Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Typhidot (IgM) as a reliable and rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever
Sushma Krishna, Seemanthini Desai, VK Anjana, RG Paranthaaman
January-June 2011, 4(1):42-44
Introduction: Typhoid fever still continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in developing countries. A simple, reliable, affordable, and rapid diagnostic test has been a long-felt need of the clinicians. We, therefore, prospectively evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of Typhidot (IgM), a serological test to identify IgM antibodies against Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Apollo Hospital, Bangalore between January 2009 and March 2009 on a total of 186 samples from clinically suspected febrile patients. Blood culture as well as Typhidot test was performed for each of the cases. Results: Out of 61 clinically diagnosed typhoid fever, 50 were blood culture positive for S. typhi all 50 were Typhidot (IgM) positive and 11 were missed out on both. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test using blood culture as gold standard were 100%, 95.5%, 89.2%, and 100%, respectively for typhoid fever. Conclusion: Typhidot (IgM) test is rapid, easy to perform, and reliable for diagnosing typhoid fever, and useful for small, less equipped laboratories as well as for the laboratories with better facilities in typhoid endemic countries.
  139,112 45 -
Physico-chemical properties and toxic effect of fruit-ripening agent calcium carbide
Mohammad Asif
May-June 2012, 5(3):150-156
Ripening is the final stage of the maturation process, when the fruit changes color, softens and develops the flavor, texture and aroma that constitute optimum eating quality. This study was conducted to discuss the use of unsatisfactory calcium carbide to ripen fruits for domestic markets as well as their toxic effects on human health. The commonly used ripening agents are calcium carbide, acetylene, ethylene, propylene, ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid), glycol, ethanol and some other agents. The calcium carbide is one of the most commonly used ripening agent for fruits, while other calcium salts like calcium ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and calcium sulfate are used to delay fruit ripening agents for local fruit industries. The use of calcium carbide is being discouraged worldwide, due to associated health hazards. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous, and once dissolved in water, it produces acetylene gas. Arsenic, phosphorous and acetylene gas may affect the different body organs and causes various health problems like headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema, seizures and prolonged hypoxia.
  67,375 69 3
Defluoridation of water by a one step modification of the Nalgonda technique
N Suneetha, K Padma Rupa, V Sabitha, K Kalyan Kumar, Shruti Mohanty, AS Kanagasabapathy, Pragna Rao
July-December 2008, 1(2):56-58
Defluoridation of water by the Nalgonda technique is a commonly used household process in areas of endemic fluorosis in villages around Nalgonda (Andhra Pradesh, India). The aim of this paper was to modify the existing well-known procedure minimally and without much change in the cost to bring about a greater removal of fluoride. By doubling the concentrations of alum and lime, water fluoride levels fell significantly (p<0.001) in tap water and drinking water while pH levels and other inorganic factors remained unaffected.
  49,363 115 -
Recurring hand foot mouth disease in a child
Edwin Dias, Meena Dias
January-February 2012, 5(1):40-41
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus A-16, a type of enterovirus. Individual cases and outbreaks of HFMD occur worldwide. There are reports of HFMD epidemics from India. Recurrence of HFMD is very rare. We report here, a sporadic case of recurrent HFMD.
  33,858 21 2
Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue
Sabitha Kandi, Pragna Rao
January-February 2012, 5(1):1-2
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions). TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave's disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto's thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.
  32,507 24 1
A rare case of genital myiasis in a woman with genital prolapse and malignancy and review of the literature
Jahar Baidya
January-June 2009, 2(1):29-30
Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larvae of several species. The infestations reduce host physiological functions; destroy host tissues, and causes significant economical losses. It is very rare disease in USA and Europe, seen rarely in tropical and subtropical countries in persons with poor personal hygiene. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. The location of this infestation at genital region is, however, an extremely rare occurrence. The authors present here one case of genital myiasis affecting a village woman with genital prolapse and advanced vaginal malignancy.
  27,067 35 2
Oral myiasis
Atul P Sattur, Meera Kulkarni, Arpita Rai, Venkatesh G Naikmasur
March-April 2012, 5(2):130-132
Oral myiasis is a rare condition characterized by infestation of tissues and organs of animals and humans with the larvae of Dipteran flies. Oral myiasis has been previously ascribed to poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, supparative lesion, neoplasia and in patients with neuro-psychiatric defecits. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of oral myiasis involving the anterior palate in a schizophrenic patient and to discuss the importance of its diagnosis and management in clinical oral practice. Medical personnel taking care of old or debilitated patients, especially those with neurologic deficit need to bear in mind the possibility of infestation with Dipteran flies' larvae to be able to make a prompt diagnosis and implement relevant intervention to prevent extensive tissue destruction.
  21,995 15 -
Breast tuberculosis or granulomatous mastitis: A diagnostic dilemma
R De Sousa, R Patil
July-December 2011, 4(2):122-125
Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon disease with nonspecific clinical, radiological, and histological findings. Investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative, and diagnosis is frequently one of exclusion. We report a case of tuberculous breast abscess in a 46-year-old female case of Carcinoma Maxilla on palliative radiochemotherapy. Equivocal histology, negative Ziehl-Neelsen stain, and culture for acid-fast bacilli resulted in the abscess initially being diagnosed as granulomatous mastitis and treated accordingly. Subsequent development of a discharging sinus and history of immunosuppression raised suspicion of culture-negative tuberculosis. Treatment with standard antituberculous drugs was associated with complete resolution of the breast abscess. This case highlights the difficulty in differentiating culture negative tuberculosis from granulomatous mastitis. Also, the unusual age of presentation following radio and chemotherapy is noteworthy.
  21,881 24 -
Tuberculosis at unusual sites: A case series from a tertiary care center in North Karnataka, India
Dinesh R Kulkarni, Ritesh V Sulegaon, Shashidhar F Chulki
May-June 2015, 8(3):67-70
Tuberculosis (TB) has long been a common and major public health problem in India. Pulmonary infection is the commonest form of the disease, though the bacteria can cause systemic infection in virtually any organ. The increased global incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has led to a resurgence of TB, with reports of unusual sites being affected by the disease. Due to a very high incidence and prevalence of pulmonary TB in India, different forms of extrapulmonary TB are also relatively high. It can present in many diverse ways at unusual sites, which can be confused with many treatable and nontreatable conditions. Here, we present a case series of primary and secondary forms of TB at unusual sites.
  20,195 13 -
Menstruation during dengue hemorrhagic fever: A case study
Viroj Wiwanitkit
March-April 2013, 6(2):265-265
  19,392 11 -
Knowledge and Attitude about Blood Donation Amongst Undergraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University of Central India
Purushottam A Giri, Deepak B Phalke
November-December 2012, 5(6):569-573
Background: The major part of demand for blood in India is met through voluntary blood donations. Students consists a large and healthy group who are able to provide a large number of blood donation. However, there is a paucity of studies on knowledge and attitude among undergraduate students from medical and paramedical branches. Objectives: A present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among undergraduate medical science university students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year undergraduate students from medical, dental, nursing, and physiotherapy disciplines in a Pravara institute of Medical Sciences University campus of central India during the period of May- August 2011. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good; however, majority (52.5%) of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among medical students (53.1%) and lowest among physiotherapy students (20.7%). Non-consideration, forgetfulness, and lack of time were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campus to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.
  17,405 83 2
Factors militating against effective implementation of primary health care (PHC) system in Nigeria
Josephat M Chinawa
January-February 2015, 8(1):5-9
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the factors that militate against effective implementation of a primary health care (PHC) system in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at four selected PHC centers in Enugu State from November 2014 to January 2015. The primary health center was chosen by systemic sampling from about eight primary health centers in Enugu metropolis. The sixteen-item questionnaire was elaborated with the Likert scale. Data retrieved were collected with the aid of a structured study pro forma and analyzed using SPSS Version 18. Results: A total of 169 health workers were recruited from four primary health centers. The mean age of all participants was 38.42 years standard deviation (SD) = 9.8, while the male: Female ratio was 2:1. Among the subjects, 59% were aged 30-39 years. Existing equipment and manpower on one hand and job security and salary on the other hand are negative factors in the implementation of PHC; the respondents believed that adequate supply of gloves, needles, bandages, good access to drugs and medications, a good cold chain system, and full implementation of immunization programs all exist in PHC centers. Adequate community participation, culture and religion, access to safe and clean water, and steady electricity, on the other hand, are nonexistent in the PHC centers in the study. Conclusions: The PHC centers studied showed that much remains to be desired, especially in terms of manpower, communication, and the remuneration of health workers.
  17,082 28 -
Negative staining of mycobacteria - A clue to the diagnosis in cytological aspirates: Two case reports
C.S.B.R Prasad, Aparna Narasimha, ML Harendra Kumar
July-December 2011, 4(2):110-112
Large amounts of lipids present in the cell wall of mycobacteria render them impermeable to dyes used in routine stains. Special staining techniques like Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), Auromine Rhodamine are needed to demonstrate them. However, they may appear as negatively stained ghosts in Leishman, Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (H and E) and Gram stained smears. Awareness of this feature prompts one to look for mycobacteria by special techniques, even in the absence of cytological features of tuberculous infection like epithelioid granulomas and caseous necrosis. In this paper, we aim to present two cases showing negatively stained images in the lymphnode aspirates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients. A study has been done of two cases of HIV positive patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was carried out for them from the enlarged lymph nodes which revealed purulent material. Smears of FNAC material were prepared for histopathological examination. Fixed smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and air dried smears were stained with Giemsa and ZN-stain and studied. Smear study showed scant cellularity, cells composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Background was necrotic. Giemsa stained smears showed, in addition to cells mentioned, negatively stained ghostly rod shaped structures in the cytoplasm of macrophages and also in the background. ZN-stain showed numerous acid fast bacilli. Both the aspirates were signed out as tuberculous lymphadenitis. In both the cases, cultures grew Mycobacterium avium Intracellulare. Classical cytological features of tuberculosis may not be present in immunocompromised patients and on the contrary there may be suppuration rich in neutrophils or sheets of histiocytes in tuberculosis. One may miss these cases if mycobacteria are not looked for specifically by special stains. Negatively stained ghost images of Tuberculous bacilli on different types of strains are a very helpful finding in such cases.
  16,496 16 2
Infection control practices among doctors and nurses in a tertiary care hospital
Manisha Jain, Vinita Dogra, Bibhabati Mishra, Archana Thakur, Poonam Sood Loomba
January-February 2012, 5(1):29-33
Background: Basic infection control measures in any healthcare setup can reduce the rates of healthcare-associated infections. A study to assess the knowledge and practice of 400 healthcare personnel regarding hospital infection control practices was performed. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to the study group and collected the same day. Knowledge and practices of 329 nurses and 71 doctors regarding hand hygiene, SPs, hospital environmental cleaning and needle stick injury were collected and analyzed. Results: The study group had suboptimal knowledge regarding the SPs (55.3%) and risks associated with NSI (31.8%). The implementation of SPs was biased towards the HIV positive status of the patient. Only 57% of the doctors and nurses followed the maximal barrier precautions before a CVC insertion. Discussion: The lack of knowledge and practices regarding basic infection control protocols should be improved by way of educational intervention, in the form of formal training of the doctors and nurses and reinforcement of the same.
  16,436 46 2
Is there science behind the near-death experience: Does human consciousness survives after death?
Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya
March-April 2013, 6(2):151-165
Near death experiences (NDEs) have been reported throughout world in essentially all cultures, including amongst the believers of the Hindu religion The contents of NDEs are independent of the gender, age, profession, religion, belief of soul, belief in angels of death or ghosts and belief in death kingdom and heaven, of people who experienced it. The frequency of occurrence is estimated to be between 5% to 48% in adults, and around 85% in children who experienced near-death situations. This frequency may be higher still, perhaps even 100 percent, were it not for the dreamlike and dissociative character of these experiences, and the amnesia-prone participation of the temporal lobe cortex of brain, causing a clear tendency to forget the NDE. A number of experiences can be very similar to NDEs, such as review of one's life in this planet, or an out-of-body experience (OBE,) in which the physical body and its surroundings are observed from various external vantage points, often from above, such that the body is passing through a deep dark tunnel, or seeing flash of light equal to thousands of sun for pure souls. The experience of seeing God and conversing with him, seeing alien lands, seeing dead relatives or someone's future, can all be regarded as similar in nature. Many individuals have reported horror experiences as well. Numerous cases-are existing in which the reality of the the OBE-observation can be independently 'verified, by external conditions, situations, people, objects, etc. Even people who are non-religious, subsequent to NDE experiences have displayed a markedly decreased fear of death, and a corresponding increase in the belief in "life after death" and re-incarnation. Certain elements of NDE- experiences can be induced by drugs, such as hallucinogenic substances and anesthetic drugs like ketamine, and electrical stimulation of the right temporal lobe or the limbic system has also produced such effects. The possibility that the hallucinogenic transmitters (and endorphins) of the brain themselves play a role in the NDE has been postulated. Nevertheless, there are NDE-elements, such as the frequently reported quick life-reviews, and the acquisition of external, verifiable information about the physical surroundings, that cannot be explained. Wish-fulfillment, death-denial or fighting against death, and other defense mechanisms of the brain, are also not adequate explanations. The large body of NDE data now points to genuine evidence for a non-physical reality. The paranormal capacities of the human being also raises the question: Does the human soul exist?
  16,010 26 -
Dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socio-economic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city
BR Chandra Shekar, C.V.K Reddy, BC Manjunath, S Suma
July-December 2011, 4(2):99-106
Objective: To assess the dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Study Design and Methodology: This study was cross-sectional in nature and involved completion of a predesigned structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple option questions to collect information on awareness on dental diseases, visit to dentist, reasons for visit, reasons for not visiting dentist on routine basis, oral hygiene practices, and deleterious oral habits. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of per capita income was used to classify individuals into different socioeconomic status (SES) categories. Data were entered onto a personal computer and analysis was done using SPSS version 14. Results: Awareness on dental diseases was 100% in upper SES and nil (0%) in the lower SES. Visit to dentist in the last 1 year was 100% in the upper SES and 32.3% in the lower SES. The prevalence of smoking, pan-chewing, and alcohol consumption was high in lower SES than in upper SES. Oral hygiene practices were better among the subjects in upper class than the lower ones. Conclusion: A direct relation was noted between the favorable dental health awareness, attitude, oral hygiene behavior, and SES.
  15,674 28 1
Knowledge, attitude and practice of HIV/AIDS: Behavior change among tertiary education students in Lagos, Nigeria
Oyewole C Durojaiye
January-June 2011, 4(1):18-24
Background : Globally, the spread of HIV/AIDS remains on the rise with young people at increased risk of infection. Sexual behavior change remains the most effective way of preventing further transmission. Aim: To gain the knowledge needed to develop appropriate interventions that will enable young people to adopt safe sexual practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured questionnaires among 315 randomly selected students enrolled at a tertiary institution in Lagos State, Nigeria. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 23 years. Although the mean score of the participants' responses to ten HIV/AIDS knowledge questions was 8.3 of 10 points, 73.5% of them did not perceive themselves at risk of being infected. Majority (53.8%) had not changed their dating behaviors as a result of concerns for HIV/AIDS and 70.3% had multiple lifetime sexual partners. Those who perceived themselves at risk of infection are significantly (P = 0.019) more likely to always use condoms. Using the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM), it was found that the students are in the first stage of behavior change process: recognition of the problem. The low risk perception has prevented movement to the second stage of making commitment to change behavior. Conclusion: The awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS is high among tertiary education students in Lagos, Nigeria. However, risk perception is low with high-risk sexual behaviors. The failure to perceive HIV/AIDS as a personal risk has prevented commitment to behavior change. Interventions aimed at influencing risk perception are paramount to curb the spread of this dreaded disease.
  14,442 26 6
Attitudes and problems related to voluntary blood donation in India: A short communication
Sourabh Aggarwal, Vishal Sharma
January-February 2012, 5(1):50-52
  12,046 21 -
Primary health care and public-private partnership: An indian perspective
Ranabir Pal, Shrayan Pal
July-December 2009, 2(2):46-52
Background: In the new millennium, the progress and success of primary health care (PHC) in India has been delegated to and nurtured in the hands of growing number of 'for-profit' and 'not-for-profit' public-private partnerships along with secondary and tertiary care. This article tries to analyze the adequacy and quality of the ever increasing public-private partnership (PPP) in PHC in India. Objective: To assess time trends and overall patterns of public-private partnership in PHC in India. Materials and Methods: We conducted a literature search for data sources through an extensive search in indexed literature and website-based population survey reports; 13 states with public-private partnerships working on PHC were identified. A broad criterion to define both 'for-profit' and 'not-for-profit' PPPs was taken. Outcome variables were success of PPPs in PHC implementation. Results: The study critically reviewed PPPs in the light of their services in the PHC segment and significant policy perspectives by an in depth analysis with operational issues in the management and functioning of the schemes. In the health sector PPPs in India, as social entities, pool the best features of the two merging authorities of Government and private sector. They have already shown their potential. Conclusions: In India, PHC, PPP have shown accountability to the people in India. The time has come to explore this to the fullest extent.
  10,392 286 2
Epstein-Barr infection: Current treatment options
Abubakar Yaro
January-February 2013, 6(1):10-13
Epstein-Barr virus is one of the causes of known human cancers such as PLTD, BL and XLP. It is persistent in about 90% of the global population. Prevalent antiviral agents are not effective. A systematic review was undertaken to discuss current treatment options available for EBV infection. A search was made of PubMed to identify relevant papers published from 2000 to 2010 using various search indexes. The review is based on 11 articles included in the study. The result showed that there is no studies which analyzed antiviral agents in EBV infection. Combinational therapy using antiviral agents, immunotherapy and anticancer agents should be considered while antibiotic regimen should be considered to take care of any sepsis. Resistance to antiviral agents especially cross-resistance is burden in EBV infection Studies should be undertaken to evaluate resistance pattern in EBV infection. To assess the efficacy of EBV therapeutics. Viral load using molecular techniques should be used as biomarker of efficacy.
  10,494 21 1
Unusual presentation of giant condylomata acuminata of the vulva: A case report and review of literature
Ibrahim A Yakasai, Idris S Abubakar, Saidu A Ibrahim, Rabi'u Ayyuba
September-October 2012, 5(5):508-510
The lesion of Condylomata Acuminata popularly known as venereal warts are lesions which are generally diagnosed based on their warty appearance. The mode of treatment range from application of podophyllin to surgical excision by cauterization. A case of unusual presentation of giant Condylomata in a 26 year old, single, nulliparous, retroviral disease positive woman is presented and the literature reviewed. She presented with 18 months history of rapidly progressive vulval swelling and associated itching, contact bleeding, malodorous vaginal discharge and difficulty in walking. She had previously been treated with podophyllin without success. The growth measured 40×30 cm and was successfully excised with no evidence of malignancy.
  9,553 15 -
Thrombocytopenia in malaria and its correlation with different types of malaria
Manmeet K Gill, Manisha Makkar, Sachan Bhat, Tanveer Kaur, Kalpana Jain, Geetika Dhir
March-April 2013, 6(2):197-200
Aim of the Study: Malaria is a major health problem in the tropics with increased morbidity and mortality. Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in malaria. Although a reliable diagnostic marker, prognostic implications could vary in the two types of malaria. This study was undertaken to assess the presence and severity of thrombocytopenia in malaria patients. Design: A total of 120 patients were included in the study and identified positive for malaria parasites on peripheral smear examination with conventional microscopy. Platelet count was done on a fully automated, quantitative, hematology analyzer. Results: Thrombocytopenia was noted in 63.33% cases. The mean platelet count in Plasmodium vivax (Pv) malaria was 1,27,652/μl (SD 78,269) with a range of 8000-3,50,000/μl, as against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria where the mean platelet count was 78,500/μl (SD 51,485) with a range of 9000-1,90,000/μl. Platelet count < 50,000/μl was noted in only 17.4% cases of Pv malaria as against 33.3% cases of Pf malaria. Conclusion: Although absence of thrombocytopenia is uncommon in malaria, its presence is not a distinguishing feature between the two types of malaria. Our study stresses the importance of thrombocytopenia as an indicator of acute malaria.
  9,475 26 -
A review of the national tuberculosis and leprosy control programme (ntblcp) of Nigeria: Challenges and prospects
Akaninyene A Otu
September-October 2013, 6(5):491-500
This review evaluates the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme (NTBLCP) of Nigeria to identify challenges and prospects for reducing the burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Nigeria. TB remains the leading cause of death due to an infectious agent globally. Nigeria has the tenth largest burden of TB cases in the world. Rates of TB morbidity and mortality in Nigeria are spiralling despite expressions of political will to control TB and a clearly articulated NTBLCP policy. This is in contradistinction to the global decline in incidence and mortality from TB recorded from 2004. Information for this review was gotten from NTBLCP annual reports and peer reviewed articles. Literature search was conducted using various databases. Through review and analysis, NTBLCP of Nigeria was found to have sub-optimal Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) population coverage with shortage of skilled TB health workers at Primary Health Care (PHC) level. There were shortfalls in TB laboratories and quality assurance services with weak integration of TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB care services were fledgling and funding for TB control was inadequate. Also identified were weak Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilization (ACSM) and Public-Private-Mix (PPM). There was poor implementation of TB infection control strategies in health facilities. Prospects for TB control in Nigeria included the existence of a 20 year old TB control programme. Others were the presence of political commitment by the Nigerian government and willingness of development partners to assist. Some effective TB control strategies were also examined.
  9,408 36 -
Ethical issues in malaria vaccine clinical trials: A principle-based approach
Joseph O Fadare, Olusegun G Ademowo
January-June 2010, 3(1):35-38
Malaria remains a major problem with the significant public health dimension affecting hundreds of millions of people annually, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The effectiveness of the measures currently used to control the disease is now drastically reduced because of the development of parasite resistance to the anti-malarial drugs and vector adaptation to the insecticides. On account of this development, efforts are ongoing to develop a malaria vaccine to help in the prevention of the disease as well as in reducing the severity in patients. Drug research and development have always raised a lot of ethical issues, especially in the context of developing countries like those of sub-Saharan Africa. This article discusses some of these ethical dilemmas using a template based on the four principles of biomedical ethics.
  9,349 19 -
Bacterial capsule, colony morphology, functions, and its relation to virulence and diagnosis
Venkataramana Kandi
July-August 2015, 8(4):151-153
Microorganisms possess many virulence factors that are usually decided by their genetic makeup. Not many virulence determinants of bacteria are phenotypically expressed. Capsule is one such bacterial organelle, which displays many functions that include adherence, resistance to immune clearance, protection against environmental factors, and many others including the typing of bacteria based on their specific capsular antigen and rapid diagnosis of capsulated bacterial infections using monoclonal/polyclonal anticapsular antibodies.
  9,293 15 -
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