Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 80-84

Pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients: A study from India

Department of Microbiology, Fr. Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Meena Dias
Department of Microbiology, Fr. Muller Medical College, Kankanady, Mangalore-575 002
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.95954

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Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-reactive patients are more prone to infections. The morbidity and mortality in HIV-reactive patients is due to opportunistic infections. Most of the infections seen in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome are endemic to that geographical region. Hence, this study was undertaken to document the occurrence of pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Expectorated and induced sputum samples were collected from 100 HIV-reactive patients and processed for bacterial and fungal pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii. Results: Of 100 samples, 66 were culture positive. Among the isolates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis constituted the highest number, 55 (83.3%), followed by other bacterial infections, 11 (16.6%), and fungi, 2 (3.03%). Tuberculosis patients had a CD4 count of less than 250 cells/μl with a mean count of 186 cells/μl and those with bacterial infections had a CD4 count of more than 300 cells/μl. The study showed that males were infected with HIV more than females and most of them belonged to the adult age group in the prime of their working life. Weight loss followed by fever and cough were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: M. tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic pathogen followed by bacterial pathogens infecting the lung in HIV. Low CD4 count is a dangerous signal of decreased immune status and higher chances of opportunistic infections and high mortality.

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