Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 166-172

Plasmodium index, prevention, and control of malaria in Dschang municipality, Cameroon

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O Box 67, Dschang, West Region, Cameroon

Correspondence Address:
Catherine K Fusi-Ngwa
Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67 Dschang, West Region
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.116496

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Background : Disease surveillance identifies prevention targets and provides information to monitor growth. Malaria eradication in Africa was a high priority within the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This work aimed to accentuate the status of malaria in Dschang amid rigorous interventions. Materials and Methods : In a cross-sectional study, 515 persons, comprising 300 pupils in six primary schools and 215 individuals living around a municipal lake, were screened for malaria using standard parasitological methods. A questionnaire was administered for relevant epidemiological information. Results : Seventy-nine (15.3%) persons positive for Plasmodium were all asymptomatic; 71 (13.8%) cases had Plasmodium falciparum, and 8 (1.5%) Plasmodium malariae; Loa loa and Mansonella perstans (0.2% each) were also identified. There was a significant negative correlation between age and infection (r = -0.82). The parasite density ranged from 60 to 22590 parasites/mm 3 of blood, mean 1014.68 p/mm 3 , with 3 (0.6%) severe cases (> 5000 p/mm 3 ). Children aged 0-4 years were most vulnerable, Plasmodium index (PI)-33.3%. The PI was higher in pupils' resident on the semi-rural swampy outskirts conducive for mosquito development. Distance from the lake had no influence on PI. Parasitemia increased significantly in August. Dschang was established mesoendemic for malaria with a low density. Increasing urbanization, health promotion, good drainage and sanitation, the use of mosquito nets, chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women, treating children up to five years free, and the use of insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes seemed to reduce malaria transmission and its fly vectors. Conclusion : Scaling up, greater efficiency, and equitable delivery of malaria control initiatives would be fruitful.

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