Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 219-225

Pharmacoepidemiology: Pattern of some commonly reported diseases and drugs utilized in a tertiary health institution

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Sylvester Erhunmwonsere Aghahowa
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1755-6783.184786

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Purpose: Due to a wide variation of diseases reported and drugs utilized in different regions, It became necessary to assess the pattern of diseases commonly reported and drugs utilized prior to and after visiting the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients who reported with various diseases at the first point of visit were randomly selected after obtaining ethical consent from the health institution. Results: Out of 4253 patients who were assessed, the male to female ratio was 0.92:1. The age range was 56 ± 26.02 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] years. The diseases reported were classified; the most common was trauma (open wounds: 62.69%) followed by infection (malaria: 62.51%), gastrointestinal disease (upset stomach: 65.06%), respiratory disease (cough: 69.79%), cardiovascular disease (hypertension: 68.51%), central nervous system disease (headache: 63.97%), endocrine disease (diabetes: 81.66%), musculoskeletal disorder (pain: 91.40%), and dermal disease (rash: 63.15%). The commonly utilized classes of drugs prior/post visits were analgesics (acetaminophen 44.87%/diclofenac 24.24%), antiallergic (chlorpheniramine 1.01%/loratadine 0.16%), anti-infective (ampicillin-cloxacilline 12.16%/ciprofloxacine 18.75%), antidiarrhea (oral rehydration salt 0.6%/zinc sulfate 0.25%), antifungal (clotrimazole 1.42%/fluconazole 3.12%), antihypertensive (Moduretic 10.02%/amlodipine 7.02%) antimalarial (artemether-lumefantrine 24.42%/artemether-lumefantrine 41.51%), antiulcer (mist magnesium trisilicate 1.08%/omeprazole 2.40%), anxiolytic (diazepam 0.42%/bromazepam 0.55%), and minerals/vitamins (ascorbic acid 4.00%/ferrous sulfate 1.48%). There was a significant difference in the pattern of disease among the ages (P < 0.05) but the difference was insignificant between the sexes (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Essential drugs were being prescribed and utilized prior to and after hospital visits. It is therefore, recommended that an enhanced adequate stocking and prescribing be encouraged in accordance with the reported diseases.

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