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|Typhidot (IgM) as a reliable and rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever
Sushma Krishna, Seemanthini Desai, VK Anjana, RG Paranthaaman
January-June 2011, 4(1):42-44
Introduction: Typhoid fever still continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in developing countries. A simple, reliable, affordable, and rapid diagnostic test has been a long-felt need of the clinicians. We, therefore, prospectively evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of Typhidot (IgM), a serological test to identify IgM antibodies against Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Apollo Hospital, Bangalore between January 2009 and March 2009 on a total of 186 samples from clinically suspected febrile patients. Blood culture as well as Typhidot test was performed for each of the cases. Results: Out of 61 clinically diagnosed typhoid fever, 50 were blood culture positive for S. typhi all 50 were Typhidot (IgM) positive and 11 were missed out on both. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the test using blood culture as gold standard were 100%, 95.5%, 89.2%, and 100%, respectively for typhoid fever. Conclusion: Typhidot (IgM) test is rapid, easy to perform, and reliable for diagnosing typhoid fever, and useful for small, less equipped laboratories as well as for the laboratories with better facilities in typhoid endemic countries.
|Physico-chemical properties and toxic effect of fruit-ripening agent calcium carbide
May-June 2012, 5(3):150-156
Ripening is the final stage of the maturation process, when the fruit changes color, softens and develops the flavor, texture and aroma that constitute optimum eating quality. This study was conducted to discuss the use of unsatisfactory calcium carbide to ripen fruits for domestic markets as well as their toxic effects on human health. The commonly used ripening agents are calcium carbide, acetylene, ethylene, propylene, ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid), glycol, ethanol and some other agents. The calcium carbide is one of the most commonly used ripening agent for fruits, while other calcium salts like calcium ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and calcium sulfate are used to delay fruit ripening agents for local fruit industries. The use of calcium carbide is being discouraged worldwide, due to associated health hazards. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous, and once dissolved in water, it produces acetylene gas. Arsenic, phosphorous and acetylene gas may affect the different body organs and causes various health problems like headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema, seizures and prolonged hypoxia.
|Defluoridation of water by a one step modification of the Nalgonda technique
N Suneetha, K Padma Rupa, V Sabitha, K Kalyan Kumar, Shruti Mohanty, AS Kanagasabapathy, Pragna Rao
July-December 2008, 1(2):56-58
Defluoridation of water by the Nalgonda technique is a commonly used household process in areas of endemic fluorosis in villages around Nalgonda (Andhra Pradesh, India). The aim of this paper was to modify the existing well-known procedure minimally and without much change in the cost to bring about a greater removal of fluoride. By doubling the concentrations of alum and lime, water fluoride levels fell significantly (p<0.001) in tap water and drinking water while pH levels and other inorganic factors remained unaffected.
|Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue
Sabitha Kandi, Pragna Rao
January-February 2012, 5(1):1-2
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions). TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave’s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto’s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.
|Recurring hand foot mouth disease in a child
Edwin Dias, Meena Dias
January-February 2012, 5(1):40-41
Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus A-16, a type of enterovirus. Individual cases and outbreaks of HFMD occur worldwide. There are reports of HFMD epidemics from India. Recurrence of HFMD is very rare. We report here, a sporadic case of recurrent HFMD.
|A rare case of genital myiasis in a woman with genital prolapse and malignancy and review of the literature
January-June 2009, 2(1):29-30
Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larvae of several species. The infestations reduce host physiological functions; destroy host tissues, and causes significant economical losses. It is very rare disease in USA and Europe, seen rarely in tropical and subtropical countries in persons with poor personal hygiene. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. The location of this infestation at genital region is, however, an extremely rare occurrence. The authors present here one case of genital myiasis affecting a village woman with genital prolapse and advanced vaginal malignancy.
|Factors militating against effective implementation of primary health care (PHC) system in Nigeria
Josephat M Chinawa
January-February 2015, 8(1):5-9
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the factors that militate against effective implementation of a primary health care (PHC) system in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at four selected PHC centers in Enugu State from November 2014 to January 2015. The primary health center was chosen by systemic sampling from about eight primary health centers in Enugu metropolis. The sixteen-item questionnaire was elaborated with the Likert scale. Data retrieved were collected with the aid of a structured study pro forma and analyzed using SPSS Version 18. Results: A total of 169 health workers were recruited from four primary health centers. The mean age of all participants was 38.42 years standard deviation (SD) = 9.8, while the male: Female ratio was 2:1. Among the subjects, 59% were aged 30-39 years. Existing equipment and manpower on one hand and job security and salary on the other hand are negative factors in the implementation of PHC; the respondents believed that adequate supply of gloves, needles, bandages, good access to drugs and medications, a good cold chain system, and full implementation of immunization programs all exist in PHC centers. Adequate community participation, culture and religion, access to safe and clean water, and steady electricity, on the other hand, are nonexistent in the PHC centers in the study. Conclusions: The PHC centers studied showed that much remains to be desired, especially in terms of manpower, communication, and the remuneration of health workers.
|Clinical profile and outcome of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)
Virendra C Patil, Vaibhav Agrwal, Amardip Rajput, Rishu Garg, Ketan Kshirsagar, Vinit Chaudhari
July-August 2015, 8(4):105-112
Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiographic syndrome of multiple etiologies. Still, the exact pathophysiology of PRES is not clear. Aims and Objectives: To study demographic, etiological, and clinic-radiological profiles of patients presenting with PRES and their outcome at the tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational and non-interventional study was conducted at tertiary care center in from January 2009 to December 2013 at Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad. Inclusion Criteria: The clinical history of acute neurologic change including headache, encephalopathy, seizure, visual disturbance, or focal deficit with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain imaging findings of focal vasogenic edema with clinical or radiologic proof of reversibility. Results: Of a total 43 patients with suspected diagnosis of PRES, 29 patients were included fulfilling all inclusion criteria of PRES. Of total the 29 patients with confirmed diagnosis of PRES, 22 (75.86%) were female and 7 (24.13%) were male patients, predominated by female population (relative risk [RR]: 3.14; odds ration [OR]: 9.87; ‘P‘ < 0.001). The overall mean age was 33.65 years (±15.26) and mean duration of stay was 10.13 days (±4.98). The most common clinical presentation was generalized tonic-clonic seizures, seen in 23 (79.31%) patients, headache in 21 (72.41%) patients, and visual disturbances 13 (44.82%) patients. A total of 18 (62.06%) patients were hypertensive and 11 (37.93%) were normotensive [RR: 1.63]. A total of 6 (27.27%) females and 5 (71.42%) males were normotensive and total 16 (72.72%) females and 2 (28.57%) males were hypertensive (RR: 1.12). Of a total of 22 female patients with PRES, 19 (86.36%) were in a postpartum state, one (4.45%) had systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), one (4.54%) had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with septicemia and one (4.54%) had chronic hypertension in accelerated phase. Postpartum state was significantly associated with PRES (‘P‘ < 0.001). A total of 15 (68.18%) female patients had pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)/eclampsia. Of a total of 7 male patients with a diagnosis of PRES. two (28.57%) were had chronic kidney disease (CKD), two (28.57%) had chronic hypertension, one (14.28%) had alcohol intoxication, one (14.28%) had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and one (14.28%) had septicemia with septicemic shock. Of a total three (10.34%) deaths, two were females (6.89%) and one (3.44%) was male. Total 26 (89.65%) patients were discharged after successful treatment. A total of three patients succumbed during treatment with case fatality rate of 10.34% (RR: 1.06). The most commonly involved location was the parieto-occipital and cerebellum brain region, which was seen in 23 (79.31%) patients and the lesions were asymmetric in 27 (93.10%) and symmetric in 2 (6.89%) cases. All 29 (100%) patients had bilateral affection. Conclusion: The present study revealed the significant numbers of patients in postpartum state with PRES syndrome with good prognosis. The present study highlighted affection of young, female population with history of hypertension with predominant affection of parieto-occipital and cerebellar involvement in PRES. Autoimmune disease, infection, alcohol intoxication, and CKD were less common factors associated with PRES. The history of hypertension in clinical scenario with neuro-imaging, we should consider the possibility of PRES and aggressively treat based on the clinical presentation. Brain imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of PRES. The early diagnosis, prompt treatment including maintenance of hydration control of blood pressure and seizure and removal of precipitating factors is mandatory for a good outcome of PRES with minimal or no residual neuro-deficit.
|Bacterial capsule, colony morphology, functions, and its relation to virulence and diagnosis
July-August 2015, 8(4):151-153
Microorganisms possess many virulence factors that are usually decided by their genetic makeup. Not many virulence determinants of bacteria are phenotypically expressed. Capsule is one such bacterial organelle, which displays many functions that include adherence, resistance to immune clearance, protection against environmental factors, and many others including the typing of bacteria based on their specific capsular antigen and rapid diagnosis of capsulated bacterial infections using monoclonal/polyclonal anticapsular antibodies.
|Breast tuberculosis or granulomatous mastitis: A diagnostic dilemma
R De Sousa, R Patil
July-December 2011, 4(2):122-125
Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon disease with nonspecific clinical, radiological, and histological findings. Investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative, and diagnosis is frequently one of exclusion. We report a case of tuberculous breast abscess in a 46-year-old female case of Carcinoma Maxilla on palliative radiochemotherapy. Equivocal histology, negative Ziehl-Neelsen stain, and culture for acid-fast bacilli resulted in the abscess initially being diagnosed as granulomatous mastitis and treated accordingly. Subsequent development of a discharging sinus and history of immunosuppression raised suspicion of culture-negative tuberculosis. Treatment with standard antituberculous drugs was associated with complete resolution of the breast abscess. This case highlights the difficulty in differentiating culture negative tuberculosis from granulomatous mastitis. Also, the unusual age of presentation following radio and chemotherapy is noteworthy.
|LETTERS TO THE EDITOR|
|Menstruation during dengue hemorrhagic fever: A case study
March-April 2013, 6(2):265-265
|Factors associated with malnutrition among under five-year-old children in Iran: A systematic review
Mohammad Mohseni, Aidin Aryankhesal, Naser Kalantari
September-October 2017, 10(5):1147-1158
Background: Children are one of the most important population groups in the world and malnutrition is considered as one of death causes among them, especially those under 5 years old. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of malnutrition and its associated factors among under five-year-old children of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through searching electronic databases and searching motors of PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Magiran and IranMedex using key words of “malnutrition,” “under-nutrition,” “stunting,” “underweight,” “wasting,” “factor,” “children,” “under 5 years,” “Iran,” and their Persian synonyms. Some of the relevant journals and websites were hand searched. Results: Of 608 preliminarily retrieved articles, 36 were selected for the final phase of the study. The most important factors related to underweight were mother’s education level, father’s education level, and birth weight. In regard to wasting, gender was one of the main factors and the next four were living location, birth weight, mother’s, and father’s education levels. Mother education level, father education, gender, birth weight, and age group were mentioned as the most important factors resulting in stunting as well. Conclusions: In some regions with low socioeconomic status, especially rural areas, the focus should be on the improvement of households living conditions such as mothers’ and children’s nutrition. Improvement in parents’ education, particularly mothers’ education, can have a significant impact on children’s health. Under 5 years old girls need more attention than boys regarding to their poorer indicators.
|Tuberculosis at unusual sites: A case series from a tertiary care center in North Karnataka, India
Dinesh R Kulkarni, Ritesh V Sulegaon, Shashidhar F Chulki
May-June 2015, 8(3):67-70
Tuberculosis (TB) has long been a common and major public health problem in India. Pulmonary infection is the commonest form of the disease, though the bacteria can cause systemic infection in virtually any organ. The increased global incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has led to a resurgence of TB, with reports of unusual sites being affected by the disease. Due to a very high incidence and prevalence of pulmonary TB in India, different forms of extrapulmonary TB are also relatively high. It can present in many diverse ways at unusual sites, which can be confused with many treatable and nontreatable conditions. Here, we present a case series of primary and secondary forms of TB at unusual sites.
|Study comparing ceftriaxone with azithromycin for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children of India
Bindu T Nair, Ashish Kumar Simalti, Sunil Sharma
January-February 2017, 10(1):205-210
Introduction: The typhoid fever is one of the most common and serious infections in a developing country like India. An increase in the occurrence of typhoid fever in Indian children has stimulated the evaluation of alternative drugs for treatment in the Out Patient Department (OPD) without hospitalisation. Objective: To study the feasibility of using oral azithromycin for treating blood culture positive uncomplicated typhoid fever instead of intravenous ceftriaxone in a resource poor setting. Materials and Methods: We performed a randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of azithromycin (20 mg/kg/day) as a once daily oral dose with intravenous ceftriaxone for 7 days for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children and adolescents in India. A total of 124 children aged 3-18 years who were suspected to have typhoid fever were randomized and studied. Statistical analysis used: Data analysis was performed using Epi Info version 7 (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.) and SPSS for Windows version 7.5 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Il.). Results: Our study showed that clinical cure was achieved in 30 (100%) of 30 patients in the azithromycin group and in 30 (88.2%) of 34 patients in the ceftriaxone group. The mean time taken for clearance of bacteraemia was longer in the azithromycin group than in the ceftriaxone. No patient who received azithromycin had a relapse as compared to 5 patients who received ceftriaxone. No serious side effects occurred in any subject under study. Conclusion: Oral azithromycin could be a convenient and cheap alternative for the treatment of typhoid fever, especially in children in developing countries where medical resources are scarce.
Atul P Sattur, Meera Kulkarni, Arpita Rai, Venkatesh G Naikmasur
March-April 2012, 5(2):130-132
Oral myiasis is a rare condition characterized by infestation of tissues and organs of animals and humans with the larvae of Dipteran flies. Oral myiasis has been previously ascribed to poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, supparative lesion, neoplasia and in patients with neuro-psychiatric defecits. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of oral myiasis involving the anterior palate in a schizophrenic patient and to discuss the importance of its diagnosis and management in clinical oral practice. Medical personnel taking care of old or debilitated patients, especially those with neurologic deficit need to bear in mind the possibility of infestation with Dipteran flies’ larvae to be able to make a prompt diagnosis and implement relevant intervention to prevent extensive tissue destruction.
|Negative staining of mycobacteria – A clue to the diagnosis in cytological aspirates: Two case reports
C.S.B.R Prasad, Aparna Narasimha, ML Harendra Kumar
July-December 2011, 4(2):110-112
Large amounts of lipids present in the cell wall of mycobacteria render them impermeable to dyes used in routine stains. Special staining techniques like Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), Auromine Rhodamine are needed to demonstrate them. However, they may appear as negatively stained ghosts in Leishman, Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (H and E) and Gram stained smears. Awareness of this feature prompts one to look for mycobacteria by special techniques, even in the absence of cytological features of tuberculous infection like epithelioid granulomas and caseous necrosis. In this paper, we aim to present two cases showing negatively stained images in the lymphnode aspirates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients. A study has been done of two cases of HIV positive patients with cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was carried out for them from the enlarged lymph nodes which revealed purulent material. Smears of FNAC material were prepared for histopathological examination. Fixed smears were stained with Papanicolaou stain and air dried smears were stained with Giemsa and ZN-stain and studied. Smear study showed scant cellularity, cells composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Background was necrotic. Giemsa stained smears showed, in addition to cells mentioned, negatively stained ghostly rod shaped structures in the cytoplasm of macrophages and also in the background. ZN-stain showed numerous acid fast bacilli. Both the aspirates were signed out as tuberculous lymphadenitis. In both the cases, cultures grew Mycobacterium avium Intracellulare. Classical cytological features of tuberculosis may not be present in immunocompromised patients and on the contrary there may be suppuration rich in neutrophils or sheets of histiocytes in tuberculosis. One may miss these cases if mycobacteria are not looked for specifically by special stains. Negatively stained ghost images of Tuberculous bacilli on different types of strains are a very helpful finding in such cases.
|Dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socio-economic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city
BR Chandra Shekar, C.V.K Reddy, BC Manjunath, S Suma
July-December 2011, 4(2):99-106
Objective: To assess the dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Study Design and Methodology: This study was cross-sectional in nature and involved completion of a predesigned structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple option questions to collect information on awareness on dental diseases, visit to dentist, reasons for visit, reasons for not visiting dentist on routine basis, oral hygiene practices, and deleterious oral habits. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of per capita income was used to classify individuals into different socioeconomic status (SES) categories. Data were entered onto a personal computer and analysis was done using SPSS version 14. Results: Awareness on dental diseases was 100% in upper SES and nil (0%) in the lower SES. Visit to dentist in the last 1 year was 100% in the upper SES and 32.3% in the lower SES. The prevalence of smoking, pan-chewing, and alcohol consumption was high in lower SES than in upper SES. Oral hygiene practices were better among the subjects in upper class than the lower ones. Conclusion: A direct relation was noted between the favorable dental health awareness, attitude, oral hygiene behavior, and SES.
|Infection control practices among doctors and nurses in a tertiary care hospital
Manisha Jain, Vinita Dogra, Bibhabati Mishra, Archana Thakur, Poonam Sood Loomba
January-February 2012, 5(1):29-33
Background: Basic infection control measures in any healthcare setup can reduce the rates of healthcare-associated infections. A study to assess the knowledge and practice of 400 healthcare personnel regarding hospital infection control practices was performed. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to the study group and collected the same day. Knowledge and practices of 329 nurses and 71 doctors regarding hand hygiene, SPs, hospital environmental cleaning and needle stick injury were collected and analyzed. Results: The study group had suboptimal knowledge regarding the SPs (55.3%) and risks associated with NSI (31.8%). The implementation of SPs was biased towards the HIV positive status of the patient. Only 57% of the doctors and nurses followed the maximal barrier precautions before a CVC insertion. Discussion: The lack of knowledge and practices regarding basic infection control protocols should be improved by way of educational intervention, in the form of formal training of the doctors and nurses and reinforcement of the same.
|Is there science behind the near-death experience: Does human consciousness survives after death?
Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya
March-April 2013, 6(2):151-165
Near death experiences (NDEs) have been reported throughout world in essentially all cultures, including amongst the believers of the Hindu religion The contents of NDEs are independent of the gender, age, profession, religion, belief of soul, belief in angels of death or ghosts and belief in death kingdom and heaven, of people who experienced it. The frequency of occurrence is estimated to be between 5% to 48% in adults, and around 85% in children who experienced near-death situations. This frequency may be higher still, perhaps even 100 percent, were it not for the dreamlike and dissociative character of these experiences, and the amnesia-prone participation of the temporal lobe cortex of brain, causing a clear tendency to forget the NDE. A number of experiences can be very similar to NDEs, such as review of one’s life in this planet, or an out-of-body experience (OBE,) in which the physical body and its surroundings are observed from various external vantage points, often from above, such that the body is passing through a deep dark tunnel, or seeing flash of light equal to thousands of sun for pure souls. The experience of seeing God and conversing with him, seeing alien lands, seeing dead relatives or someone’s future, can all be regarded as similar in nature. Many individuals have reported horror experiences as well. Numerous cases-are existing in which the reality of the the OBE-observation can be independently ‘verified, by external conditions, situations, people, objects, etc. Even people who are non-religious, subsequent to NDE experiences have displayed a markedly decreased fear of death, and a corresponding increase in the belief in “life after death” and re-incarnation. Certain elements of NDE- experiences can be induced by drugs, such as hallucinogenic substances and anesthetic drugs like ketamine, and electrical stimulation of the right temporal lobe or the limbic system has also produced such effects. The possibility that the hallucinogenic transmitters (and endorphins) of the brain themselves play a role in the NDE has been postulated. Nevertheless, there are NDE-elements, such as the frequently reported quick life-reviews, and the acquisition of external, verifiable information about the physical surroundings, that cannot be explained. Wish-fulfillment, death-denial or fighting against death, and other defense mechanisms of the brain, are also not adequate explanations. The large body of NDE data now points to genuine evidence for a non-physical reality. The paranormal capacities of the human being also raises the question: Does the human soul exist?
|Knowledge and Attitude about Blood Donation Amongst Undergraduate Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University of Central India
Purushottam A Giri, Deepak B Phalke
November-December 2012, 5(6):569-573
Background: The major part of demand for blood in India is met through voluntary blood donations. Students consists a large and healthy group who are able to provide a large number of blood donation. However, there is a paucity of studies on knowledge and attitude among undergraduate students from medical and paramedical branches. Objectives: A present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among undergraduate medical science university students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 final year undergraduate students from medical, dental, nursing, and physiotherapy disciplines in a Pravara institute of Medical Sciences University campus of central India during the period of May- August 2011. Data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions and Chi-square test. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good; however, majority (52.5%) of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among medical students (53.1%) and lowest among physiotherapy students (20.7%). Non-consideration, forgetfulness, and lack of time were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campus to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.
|Knowledge, attitude and practice of HIV/AIDS: Behavior change among tertiary education students in Lagos, Nigeria
Oyewole C Durojaiye
January-June 2011, 4(1):18-24
Background : Globally, the spread of HIV/AIDS remains on the rise with young people at increased risk of infection. Sexual behavior change remains the most effective way of preventing further transmission. Aim: To gain the knowledge needed to develop appropriate interventions that will enable young people to adopt safe sexual practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured questionnaires among 315 randomly selected students enrolled at a tertiary institution in Lagos State, Nigeria. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 23 years. Although the mean score of the participants’ responses to ten HIV/AIDS knowledge questions was 8.3 of 10 points, 73.5% of them did not perceive themselves at risk of being infected. Majority (53.8%) had not changed their dating behaviors as a result of concerns for HIV/AIDS and 70.3% had multiple lifetime sexual partners. Those who perceived themselves at risk of infection are significantly (P = 0.019) more likely to always use condoms. Using the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM), it was found that the students are in the first stage of behavior change process: recognition of the problem. The low risk perception has prevented movement to the second stage of making commitment to change behavior. Conclusion: The awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS is high among tertiary education students in Lagos, Nigeria. However, risk perception is low with high-risk sexual behaviors. The failure to perceive HIV/AIDS as a personal risk has prevented commitment to behavior change. Interventions aimed at influencing risk perception are paramount to curb the spread of this dreaded disease.
|NEWS AND FILLER|
|Attitudes and problems related to voluntary blood donation in India: A short communication
Sourabh Aggarwal, Vishal Sharma
January-February 2012, 5(1):50-52
|Prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ari) and their determinants in under five children in urban and rural areas of Kancheepuram district, South India
Dhananjaya Sharma, Kumaresan Kuppusamy, Ashok Bhoorasamy
September-October 2013, 6(5):513-518
Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a major public health problem worldwide. It is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and main reason for utilization of health services among children. Identification and intervention of major risk factors can reduce the burden of ARI among children. Objective: To determine the prevalence of ARI and its risk factors among under five children in urban and rural areas of Kancheepuram district, South India. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was done in urban and rural field practice areas of Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (MAPIMS), Melmaruvathur, Kancheepuram (District) Tamil Nadu, south India, during the period of October 2009-February 2010, covering a study population of 500 under five children. Descriptive statistics was done and chi-square was used as test of significance. Results : Overall, prevalence of ARI was found to be 27%. ARI was noticed more among low social class (79.3%), illiterate mothers (37.8%), those living in kutcha houses (52.6%), overcrowded houses (63.7%), use of smoky fuel for cooking (67.4%), inadequate cross ventilation (70.4%), history of parental smoking (55.6%), low birth weight children (54.8%), and malnourished children (57.8%). Rural children (62.2%) were more affected than urban children. Conclusion: The present study had identified low socioeconomic status, poor housing conditions, cooking fuel used, birth weight, and nutritional status as important determinants for ARI. Interventions to improve these modifiable risk factors can significantly reduce the ARI burden among children.
|Epstein-Barr infection: Current treatment options
January-February 2013, 6(1):10-13
Epstein-Barr virus is one of the causes of known human cancers such as PLTD, BL and XLP. It is persistent in about 90% of the global population. Prevalent antiviral agents are not effective. A systematic review was undertaken to discuss current treatment options available for EBV infection. A search was made of PubMed to identify relevant papers published from 2000 to 2010 using various search indexes. The review is based on 11 articles included in the study. The result showed that there is no studies which analyzed antiviral agents in EBV infection. Combinational therapy using antiviral agents, immunotherapy and anticancer agents should be considered while antibiotic regimen should be considered to take care of any sepsis. Resistance to antiviral agents especially cross-resistance is burden in EBV infection Studies should be undertaken to evaluate resistance pattern in EBV infection. To assess the efficacy of EBV therapeutics. Viral load using molecular techniques should be used as biomarker of efficacy.
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|Nursing staff retention: Effective factors
Mohammad Heidari, Bahar Seifi, Zahra Abdolreza Gharebagh
November-December 2017, 10(6):1467-1473
Background: Nursing retention requires managers to focus on the retention of staff. Understanding the factors that influence the intent to stay of the staff is one of the strategies to keep nurses in the same work environment. Objective: The objective of this study is to find personal factors (physical, mental-emotional, social) and organizational factors (job stress, social support, and job satisfaction and organizational factors) that influence the nursing staff retention. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study was carried out in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. A total of 500 newly graduated staff nurses completed the questionnaire. Inclusion criteria were the minimum of a master’s degree in a nursing course. The research environments were 10 general hospitals. The data collection tool is a questionnaire including personal (physical, mental-emotional, social), job stress, social support, and job satisfaction and organizational factors. Results: The results show that job stress, social support, and job satisfaction and organizational satisfactions are an influence on retention. Attention to requesting shifts of staff (98.9%); insufficient of staff (63.9%); enjoying working with the supervisor (75.1%); and salary, reward, and benefit (90%) were mentioned as the effective factors on retention. Conclusion: New graduate nurses’ turnover intentions are a recurring problem, which could be reduced by improving nurses’ working conditions. Retention of nurses could be enhanced by creating supportive working environments to cut the susceptibility to the workplace and lower turnover intentions. The findings of the study support the claim that job satisfaction affects the staff nurses’ intent to stay in the same workplace and that it could improve the quality of nursing cares.