The bacterium Porphyromonas endodontales is a black-pigmented gram-negative bacterium that causes periodontitis, endodontic infections, gingivitis, and tooth pulp necrosis. It is the most common cause of halitosis. It also produces the toxic substance succinate, a steroid. This bacterium is endemic to the oral cavity and is a cause of many dental problems.
The bacterium was invasive in HCAEC, and it upregulated 625 genes compared to uninfected controls. These upregulated genes were associated with inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and coagulation. These gene transcription profiles were consistent with those obtained from microarray analysis. The bacterium has the potential to contribute to atherosclerosis, and therefore is important for understanding the disease.
Research on the bacterial species has shown that the bacterium is a clonal genus. The bacterium can be distinguished by its black pigmentation from surrounding teeth. Its metagenome includes three serotypes, each with a different effect on the host. Researchers have used this genus to find a cure for halitosis. It can be found on the Internet through the use of the keyword “halitosis” and the corresponding MeSH-ID.
The organism’s phylogenetic relationships have been examined. Paster BJ and Dorn BR have studied the bacterial phylogeny. Gibbons RJ and Pearce E have investigated the bacterium’s ability to invade dental tissues. In a meta-analysis, they found a strong inverse correlation between the bacterial genus P. endodontalis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Several studies have investigated the bacterium in the mouth. They found that it is an asaccharolytic, black-pigmented bacterium. They isolated the bacterium from the infected root canals and detected Porphyromonas endodontale sp. nov. by 16S rRNA gene-directed polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing.
The bacterium is a Gram-negative, black-pigmented, anerobic rod with high virulence. It has been isolated from dental root canals and submucous abscesses. The bacteria cause infections by secreting a lipopolysaccharide, a capsule, and proteases. A symptomatic bacterium is usually asymptomatic and will not require any treatment.
In recent years, studies have linked Porphyromonas endodontas to periapical infections. However, these associations are not confirmed by further studies. The bacterium is anaerobic and can be found in the tonsilar area, the dorsum of the tongue, and periodontal pockets. It has the ability to cause severe inflammation in the mouth, and is responsible for the majority of toothache in patients.
Besides causing periapical infections, Porphyromonas endodontalidis can lead to bone loss. Although the bacterium is poorly characterized, it has been found to cause periodontitis in humans. In a recent study, the bacterium was associated with chronic periodontitis and tumor necrosis. A preliminary study concluded that the microorganism is not related to any bacterial infection.