Background: Suicide is a mental health crisis and it has increased in recent years among university students. Studying the effective and predictor factors in suicidal thoughts can be helpful in understanding positive aspects and adaptive behavior of students. Objective: The relationship between quality of life, spirituality, and resilience and suicidal thoughts in students of Faculty of Sociology, Kermanshah Razi University, was studied through a descriptive, correlational study. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised all students in Faculty of Sociology, Kermanshah Razi University; a sample group of 200 participants was formed by using the multistage cluster sampling. Beck’s Scale of Suicidal thoughts (BSSI), quality of life (SF-36), Conner and Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and Qobari’s spiritual experiences questionnaire were used for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using statistics mean, SD, Pearson correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results: The study showed that among the predictor variables, resilience and quality of life had more capacity to predict suicidal thoughts. The results also showed that quality of life and resilience were significantly and negatively related to suicidal thoughts. Conclusions: Given that such thoughts are the starting point of the process that leads to the act of committing suicide and several factors such as physical, mental, social, family factors, and so on, may contribute to the development of these thoughts, similar studies are necessary to be conducted in other geographical regions and universities, and the results should be used to control the factors that affect suicidal thoughts. Based on these results, consultants providing services to university students need to pay more attention to the role of resilience and improvement in quality of life of the students to reduce suicidal thoughts in them.
Keywords: Quality of life, spirituality, resilience, students, suicidal thoughts
|How to cite this article:
Momeni KM, Moradi S, Dinei S, Shahrestani A, Dinei M, Mohammadi F, Dabirian M. The relationship between quality of life, spirituality, and resilience and suicidal thoughts in students of Razi University. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:586-8
|How to cite this URL:
Momeni KM, Moradi S, Dinei S, Shahrestani A, Dinei M, Mohammadi F, Dabirian M. The relationship between quality of life, spirituality, and resilience and suicidal thoughts in students of Razi University. Ann Trop Med Public Health [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Feb 28];10:586-8. Available from: https://www.atmph.org/text.asp?2017/10/3/586/213115
Suicide is one of the global mental health problems, and according to World Health Organization (WHO) official report (1996), at least 500,000 individuals commit suicide every year in the world. Suicide studies tend to focus on three main phenomena: suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide. The term “suicidal thoughts” refers to any thoughts with the intention of hurting oneself. These represent a wide range of ambiguous thoughts that extends from thought of ending one’s life to committing suicide. According to the reports, the prevalence of suicidal thoughts in adults varies between 2.3% and 5.6%. Suicidal thoughts lead to suicide planning in 32% of cases, out of which 72% attempts suicide (with a suicide plan). Therefore, of those found to have had suicidal thoughts, 24% commit suicide. In other words, suicidal thoughts are suicide risk factors.
One of the effective predictor variables of suicidal thoughts is quality of life that was first used in medicine with regard to life and death situations. However, the term “quality of life” is currently used as a common term in all fields of medicine and has been widely used by many researchers in recent years. A group of authors examined the effective factors in the quality of life and another group focused on designing a tool to measure the construct of personality. There is a third trend of studies that focused on methods to improve the quality of life. The term “quality of life” refers to one’s perception of current status given one’s culture and the relationship between the perception and expectations, standards, and priorities. Detecting the predictor and effective factors on students’ suicidal thoughts might help in shedding light on positive aspects and adaptive thoughts. One of these factors is spirituality. When a person follows general principles of life in which ultimate and higher meanings emerge in one’s life, spirituality can be considered as a basic construct of personality. Theories of this nature may induce the idea that spirituality is a key and predictor factor in suicidal thoughts. However, theoreticians like Ellis believe that religious individuals undergo more emotional distraction compared with nonreligious individuals.
In fact, spirituality is an internal awareness and sense of connectedness with the world. Another bases believes suicidal thoughts is resilience and recent years is characterized by psychologists paying great deal of attention to religion psychology and studies on spirituality. Theoreticians of cultural-communicational theory have approached the concept of resilience from new viewpoints. Traditional theories of resilience have emphasized on personal strength and competency which is consistent with Western-Europe theories of psychological development in which personality and independence are emphasized.
Resilience refers to ability to adapt successfully with unpleasant and threatening situations. Studies have examined resilience in specific groups such as athletes, widows, and so on. However, determining contribution of resilience to suicide has not been comprehensively studied. Inconsistent results by different studies and failure to survey all variables by other studies highlight the necessity of deeper studies and surveys.
Therefore, the present study is aimed at determining if quality of life, spirituality, and resilience could predict suicidal thoughts.
|Materials and Methods|
A descriptive, correlational study was conducted with study population comprising all students in Faculty of Sociology, Kermanshah Razi University. A sample group of 200 students was formed by using the multistage cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria were: (i) students must have attended at least two semesters in the university and they should be willing to fill out the questionnaires, and the exclusion criterion was failure to obtain the minimum average point in the program. The participants filled out the questionnaires after stating their consent to participate. The questionnaires included Becks’ Scale of Suicidal Thoughts (BSSI): a standard questionnaire used to evaluate suicidal thoughts based on 19 questions scored from 0 to 2. Therefore, minimum and maximum possible scores are zero and 38, respectively. Internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire are 0.89% and 0.83, respectively. Validity of the test based on the suicide risk measurement scale is 0.69 (P < 0.001). The scores are interpreted based on the standard score of 0–3 = lack of suicidal thoughts; 4–11 = suicidal thoughts with low risk; 12–38 = suicidal thoughts with high risk. The questionnaire is translated into Farsi, and primary studies to ensure its reliability and validity were performed in the Cognitive and Behavior Studies Department, Rouzbeh Hospital. Quality-of-life questionnaire (SF-36) has 36 statements, and it was designed by Waroshrobon (1992) in the USA with an aim to measure physical and psychological wellbeing. The questionnaire is widely used as a standard to measure quality of life. The spiritual experience questionnaire (Ghobari et al.) is a seven-point scale (completely disagree to completely agree). Some of the statements in it are scored inversely. Reliability of the questionnaire is 0.94 and its content validity is confirmed. Conner and Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) consists of 25 statements which is based on a five-point scale (completely wrong to completely right). Minimum and maximum possible scores are 25 and 125, respectively. Samani et al. (2006) surveyed and reported the reliability, KMO index, and Bartlett’s sphericity of the questionnaire for university students as 0.93, 0.91, and 2.47, respectively. To analyze the data, means, SD, Pearson’s correlation, and regression tests were performed.
Descriptive findings showed that the average age of the participants [Table 1] was 22.01 (SD = 2.31). To examine the relationship between quality of life, resilience, spirituality, and suicidal thoughts, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used and correlation between quality of life–suicidal thoughts and resilience–suicidal thoughts was –0.35 and –0.46 respectively, which were significant at P ≤ 0.01. No significant correlation was found between spirituality and suicidal thoughts.
|Table 1. Correlations coefficients of quality of life, resilience, and spirituality with suicide thoughts
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The results showed that the construct of quality of life (β = –0.40) and resilience (β = –0.19) could predict suicidal thoughts. With regard to the relationship between variables, it was noted that there was a significant negative relationship between resilience, quality of life, and suicidal thoughts. Therefore, a decrease in resilience and quality of life resulted in the increase in suicidal thoughts. According to results and the role of resilience/quality of life constructs, they could be used to reduce suicidal thoughts in the students. In this regard, holding training workshops and classes to strengthen these constructs would be helpful in reducing suicidal thoughts. [Table 2] Future studies should examine other psychological factors such as self-esteem and their effect on improving quality of life and resilience. Suicidal thoughts are observed in all age groups; however, it is more common among the youngster due to onset of adolescence and related dramatic changes. Given that such thoughts are the starting point of the process that leads to the act of committing suicide and several factors such as physical, mental, social, family factors, and so on, may contribute to the development of these thoughts, similar studies are necessary to be conducted in other geographical regions and universities, and the results should be used to control the factors that affect suicidal thoughts.
|Table 2. Regression analysis to predict suicide thoughts
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The relationship between quality of life, spirituality, and resilience and suicidal thoughts in the study showed that among the predictor variables, resilience and quality of life had more capacity to predict suicidal thoughts. The results also showed that quality of life and resilience were significantly and negatively related to suicidal thoughts. However, no significant relationship was found between spirituality and suicidal thoughts. According to the results, consultants providing services to university students need to pay more attention to the role of resilience and improvement in quality of life of the students to reduce suicidal thoughts in them.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Research (grant number: 95168) Council of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for the financial support.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2]